- Erect, to 2 m, single or few from base, glabrous and glaucous above, sparsely to densely pubescent near base, branching above, from taproot. Branches erect, staying mostly parallel to main axis.
- Basal and lower leaves 6-25 cm long, irregularly pinnately divided or lobed or toothed, petiolate, lyrate to obovate to elliptic in outline. Stem leaves alternate, progressively reduced toward the tip, the uppermost 1-5 cm long, petiolate with nonclasping bases, entire or with a few coarse, shallow teeth.
- Terminal racemes elongating in fruit to 60 cm. Pedicels 2-4 mm long in flower, to 1.3 cm long in fruit, glabrous.
- Sepals 4, 4-6 mm, greenish-yellow, 4 mm long, linear, erect to spreading, glabrous. Petals 4, 7-11 mm long, yellow, clawed, glabrous. Stamens 6, erect. Filaments greenish-yellow, to 4 mm long, glabrous. Anthers yellow. Ovary green, terete, 3 mm long, glabrous. Style 1.3 mm long, persistent in fruit.
- Siliques 10-25 mm long, erect, appressed to the inflorescence axis, somewhat 4-angled in cross-section, abruptly narrowed to a linear beak and 2-5 mm long. Seeds 4-15 per fruit, globose, 1.2-2.0 mm in diameter.
- April - November.
- Fields, waste ground, roadsides, also cultivated.
- Native to Eurasia.
- Other mustards, especially within the
- This introduced plant is widely scattered in Missouri and throughout the U.S. It is somewhat sporadic and lacks a well-defined range. The plant can be identified in the field by the large number of erect fruits it produces, its deep green leaves, and its small yellow flowers. The stems are long and thin. The plant often falls over when it reaches maturity, weighed down by the large number of fruits produced.
is often grown for its small greens and for its seeds, which have been used to make prepared mustard.
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This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete noxious weed list for that location, or click here for a composite list of all
Federal and State Noxious Weeds
This plant and the related entity italicized and indented above can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of
Weeds of the U.S.
(Linnaeus) W. D. J. Koch in J. C. Röhling, Deutschl. Fl. ed. 3. 4: 713. 1833.
Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 668. 1753
sparsely to densely hirsute-hispid (at least basally, proximally rarely subglabrate).
usually branched distally, (widely spreading), 3-20 dm.
petiole to 10 cm; blade lyrate-pinnatifid to sinuate-lobed, 6-30 cm × 10-100 mm, lobes 1-3 each side, (smaller than terminal, terminal lobe ovate, obtuse).
sessile or subsessile; blade (ovate-elliptic to lanceolate, similar to basal, reduced distally and less divided), base tapered, not auriculate or amplexicaul, (margins entire to sinuate-serrate).
not paniculately branched.
erect (straight), (2-)3-5(-6) mm.
sepals 4-6(-7) × 1-1.5 mm; petals yellow, ovate, 7-11(-13) × (2.5-)3-4.5(-5.5) mm, claw 3-6 mm, apex rounded; filaments 3.5-5 mm; anthers 1-1.5 mm.
erect-ascending (± appressed to rachis), smooth, ± 4-angled, 1-2.5(-2.7) cm × (1.5-) 2-3(-4) mm; valvular segment 2-5(-8)-seeded per locule, (0.4-)0.8-2(-2.5) cm, terminal segment seedless (linear, narrow), (1-)2-5(-6) mm.
brown to black, 1.2-1.5(-2) mm diam.; seed coat coarsely reticulate, minutely alveolate, not mucilaginous when wetted.
is widely cultivated as a condiment mustard. It is also a cosmopolitan weed especially common in the valleys of California (R. C. Rollins 1993). It occurs only sporadically in southern Canada but most frequently in Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River. Specimens from Alberta, Arkansas, Delaware, and South Carolina have not been observed.
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