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Cicuta maculata L.
SPOTTED WATER HEMLOCK
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Apiaceae   Cicuta

Cicuta maculata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cicuta maculata

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Cicuta maculata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cicuta maculata

Cicuta maculata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cicuta maculata

Cicuta maculata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cicuta maculata

Cicuta maculata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cicuta maculata

Cicuta maculata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cicuta maculata

Cicuta maculata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cicuta maculata

Cicuta maculata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 5
Cicuta maculata

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Andrenidae  Andrena @ UCRC_ENT (4)

Andrena crataegi @ CUIC_ENT (2)

Andrena platyparia @ CUIC_ENT (2)

Andrena wilkella @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Aphididae  Cavariella ( @ NCSU_ENT (14)

Sitobion ( @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Uroleucon ( @ NCSU (1)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Sphaeropsis enucleata @ BPI (1)
Colletidae  Hylaeus affinis @ UCRC_ENT (4)

Hylaeus illinoisensis @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Hylaeus mesillae @ UCRC_ENT (7)
Dermateaceae  Cylindrosporium cicutae @ BPI (5)

Phlyctema vagabunda @ BPI (1)
Halictidae  Lasioglossum imitatum @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Lasioglossum simplex @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Septoria sii @ BPI (9)
Peronosporaceae  Plasmopara nivea @ BPI (1)
Phaeosphaeriaceae  Stagonospora thaspii @ BPI (1)
Pleosporaceae  Macrosporium commune @ BPI (1)
Pucciniaceae  Puccinia bullata @ BPI (1)

Puccinia cicutae @ BPI (15)

Uromyces lineolatus @ BPI (1)

Uromyces scirpi @ BPI (11)
Turritellidae  Vermicularia compacta @ BPI (1)
_  Ascochyta thaspii @ BPI (1)

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Following modified from Delaware Wildflowers
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Delaware Wildflowers  •  Scientific names

Cicuta maculata L. Spotted Water-hemlock
Apiaceae — Carrot family
Native
Cicuta maculata
Lums Pond State Park
July 2001

Search Google Delaware USDA

Photos copyright David G. Smith

Delaware Wildflowers main page

Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
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Cicuta maculata L.

Water Hemlock

Cicuta maculata plant2

Family - Apiaceae

Habit - Perennial forb with tuberous-thickened rootstock.

Stems - Ascending to erect, to 2 m, glabrous, glaucous, hollow with cross-paritions, sometimes purplish at nodes, simple to branching.

Cicuta maculata stem Stem and node.

Leaves - Alternate and sometimes basal, glabrous. Lower leaves long-petiolate, the blades to 40 cm long, broadly ovate or triangular-ovate, 2-3x pinnately compound. Upper leaves with shorter petioles, 1-2x pinnately compound or occasionally simple. Leaflets to 12 cm long, lanceolate, tapered at the base, occasionally with basal lobes, the margins sharply toothed, the lateral veins ending at the sinuses between teeth.

Cicuta maculata leaf

Cicuta maculata sheath Sheathing petiole.

Cicuta maculata leaflet1 Leaflet adaxial.

Inflorescence - Compound umbels, terminal and axillary, mostly long stalked. Involucre absent or less commonly of 1-4 bracts, these shorter than the rays, spreading to ascending at flowering, linear, with sharply pointed tips. Rays usually numerous, 1.5-6.5 cm long, often unequal in length. Involucel absent or more commonly of 3-7 bractlets, these mostly shorter than the flower stalks, linear to broadly lanceolate, with thin, white, papery margins, tapered to sharply pointed tips.

Cicuta maculata inflorescence2 Inflorescence.

Cicuta maculata involucre Involucre.

Cicuta maculata involucel Involucel.

Flowers - Numerous in each umbellet, on stalks 2-10 mm long. Sepals minute triangular teeth. Petals 5, white, obovate, margins deflexed, to 1.3 mm broad, 1.1 mm long, apiculate and inflexed at apex. Stamens 5, alternating with petals, erect to spreading. Filaments white, 1.2 mm long, glabrous. Anthers whitish, 0.2 mm long. Ovary inferior, 2-locular, glabrous. Styles 2, 0.1 mm long.

Cicuta maculata florets Florets.

Fruits - Schizocarps 2.0-4.5 mm long, broadly oblong-elliptic in outline, flattened laterally, glabrous, dark brown to reddish brown with pale ribs, glabrous, the mericarps with 5 ribs, these blunt and somewhat corky.

Flowering - May - September.

Habitat - Sloughs, streambanks, pond margins, wet prairies, other wet areas.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Lookalikes - Numerous other members of the Apiaceae (hemlock/carrot family).

Other info. - This may be the most toxic vascular plant found in North America. It is fairly common throughout Missouri, and also ranges throughout the U.S. and Canada. The inflorescences appear similar to many other plants in the family. A key feature of this species is the lateral veins of the leaflets, which end at the notches between the teeth rather than at the tips of the teeth. This is clearly visible in the leaflets photo above, and it's a good character for identification. Note that the bracts subtending both the main umbel and the umbellets can be either present or absent.

The plant is said to have a pleasant licorice or anise scent when crushed, but contact should be avoided due to the possibility of skin absorption of toxins. All parts of the plant are poisonous, but the roots, swollen lower stems, and new growth are considered the most toxic. The potency of the plant is such that children have been reportedly been fatally poisoned by using pea shooters or whistles fashioned from pieces of the stems or roots. Even individuals who recover from poisoning can suffer long term effects, such as retrograde amnesia and impaired cognition. The main toxins are acetylenic alcohols, with cicutoxin being one example. Interestingly, these are chemically very different from the alkaloids found in the closely related poison hemlock plant ( Conium maculatum ).

Infraspecific divisions have been revised since Steyermark's time. Currently, two varieties are recognized in Missouri: var. maculata and var. bolanderi (S. Watson) G.A. Mulligan. These differ in subtle aspects of the ridges on the fruit surfaces. The latter taxon is relatively rare.

Photographs taken off Hwy H, Shannon County, MO., 6-23-04 (DETenaglia); also at Shaw Nature Reserve, Franklin County, MO, 6-30-2008, Otter Slough Conservation Area, Stoddard County, MO, 7-18-2009, and Busch Wildlife Area, St. Charles County, MO, 7-18-2013 (SRTurner).


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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CIMA2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CIMA2
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CIMA2 ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CIMA2
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CIMA2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CIMA2
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Cicuta maculata L.
spotted water hemlock

Image of Cicuta maculata

General Information
Symbol: CIMA2
Group: Dicot
Family: Apiaceae
Duration: Biennial
Perennial
Growth Habit : Forb/herb
Native Status : AK   N
CAN   N
L48   N
Data Source and Documentation
About our new maps
Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Cicuta thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species . Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Barnes, T.G., and S.W. Francis. 2004. Wildflowers and ferns of Kentucky . University Press of Kentucky. Usage Requirements .

Steve Hurst. Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory . United States, DC, Washington. Usage Requirements .

©Jeff McMillian. Provided by Almost Eden . United States, LA. Usage Requirements .

©Jeff McMillian. Provided by Almost Eden . United States, LA. Usage Requirements .

©Jim Stasz. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 658. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Provided by NRCS National Wetland Team . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Rosidae
Order Apiales
Family Apiaceae ⁄ Umbelliferae – Carrot family
Genus Cicuta L. – water hemlock
Species Cicuta maculata L. – spotted water hemlock

Subordinate Taxa

The Plants Database includes the following 4 subspecies of Cicuta maculata . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Plant is native (blue) Native Plant is introduced Introduced Plant is introduced Native and Introduced Related taxa legend Distribution of <i>
Cicuta maculata</i>
L. var. <i>
angustifolia</i>
Hook.
Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
spotted water hemlock Distribution of <i>
Cicuta maculata</i>
L. var. <i>
bolanderi</i>
(S. Watson) G. Mulligan
Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
spotted water hemlock Distribution of <i>
Cicuta maculata</i>
L. var. <i>
maculata </i>
Cicuta maculata var. maculata
spotted water hemlock Distribution of <i>
Cicuta maculata</i>
L. var. <i>
victorinii</i>
(Fernald) B. Boivin
Cicuta maculata var. victorinii
spotted water hemlock

Legal Status

Noxious Weed Information
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete noxious weed list for that location, or click here for a composite list of all Federal and State Noxious Weeds .
Nevada water hemlock Noxious weed
U.S. Weed Information
Cicuta maculata common water hemlock poison parsnip spotted cowbane spotted parsley spotted water hemlock water hemlock This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S.
STATE Assorted authors. State noxious weed lists for 46 states . State agriculture or natural resource departments.
NE&GP Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe,and M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains . Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska.

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Alaska OBL
Arid West OBL
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain OBL
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont OBL
Great Plains OBL
Midwest OBL
Northcentral & Northeast OBL
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast OBL

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (CIMA2)
CalPhotos (CIMA2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (CIMA2)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (CIMA2)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (CIMA2)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (CIMA2)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (CIMA2)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (CIMA2)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (CIMA2)
Related Websites
NY-Cornell University: Poisonous Plant Databases (images) (CIMA2)
Texas A&M: Vascular Plant Image Gallery (CIMA2)
WV: Poisonous Plants of the Southern U.S. (CIMA2)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cicuta+maculata&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cicuta+maculata&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 44
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Cicuta maculata%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 0000 0505 2200 [detail]
© 2005 Jeff Abbas

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 0000 0505 2201 [detail]
© 2005 Jeff Abbas

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 0000 0505 2202 [detail]
© 2005 Jeff Abbas

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 0000 0607 0469 [detail]
© 2007 Mary Winter

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
ID: 0000 0000 0408 1387 [detail]
© 2008 Louis-M. Landry

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
ID: 0000 0000 0408 1388 [detail]
© 2008 Louis-M. Landry

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
ID: 0000 0000 0408 1389 [detail]
© 2008 Louis-M. Landry

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
ID: 0000 0000 0408 1390 [detail]
© 2008 Louis-M. Landry

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
ID: 0000 0000 0510 1457 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
ID: 0000 0000 0510 1458 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
ID: 0000 0000 0510 1459 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 0000 0714 1011 [detail]
2014 Mary Winter

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 0000 0714 1012 [detail]
2014 Mary Winter

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 0000 0815 0542 [detail]
© 2015 Barry Breckling

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 0000 0815 0543 [detail]
© 2015 Barry Breckling

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 0000 0815 0544 [detail]
© 2015 Barry Breckling

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Common Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 1111 1234 0220 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Common Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 1111 1234 0221 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Common Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 1111 1234 0222 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Common Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 1111 1234 0223 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Common Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 1111 1234 0224 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Common Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 1111 1234 0225 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Common Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 1111 1234 0226 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Cicuta maculata
Cicuta maculata
Common Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 1111 1234 0227 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cicuta+maculata+var.+angustifolia&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cicuta+maculata+var.+angustifolia&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 12
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
Common Water Hemlock
ID: 0000 0000 1009 0124 [detail]
© 2009 Barry Breckling

Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
ID: 0000 0000 1112 0992 [detail]
© 2012 Steve Matson

Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
ID: 0000 0000 1112 0994 [detail]
© 2012 Steve Matson

Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1009 [detail]
© 2013 Steve Matson

Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1011 [detail]
© 2013 Steve Matson

Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1012 [detail]
© 2013 Steve Matson

Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1013 [detail]
© 2013 Steve Matson

Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1014 [detail]
© 2013 Steve Matson

Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
ID: 0000 0000 0813 2932 [detail]
© 2013 Steve Matson

Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
ID: 0000 0000 0813 2934 [detail]
© 2013 Steve Matson

Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
ID: 0000 0000 0813 2936 [detail]
© 2013 Steve Matson

Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
ID: 0000 0000 0813 2937 [detail]
© 2013 Steve Matson

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2019 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cicuta+maculata+var.+bolanderi&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cicuta+maculata+var.+bolanderi&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 6
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
ID: 0000 0000 0807 0209 [detail]
© 2007 Doreen L. Smith

Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
ID: 0000 0000 0807 0210 [detail]
© 2007 Doreen L. Smith

Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1015 [detail]
© 2013 Steve Matson

Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1016 [detail]
© 2013 Steve Matson

Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1017 [detail]
© 2013 Steve Matson

Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1018 [detail]
© 2013 Steve Matson

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2019 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Updated: 2019-07-21 02:10:01 gmt
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