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Erythronium americanum Ker Gawl.
DOGTOOTH VIOLET
Dog-tooth-violet; Yellow trout lilly; Adders tounge; Fawn lily; Deers toungue; Rattlesnake violet; Yellow snowdrop

Life   Plantae   Monocotyledoneae   Liliaceae   Erythronium

Erythronium americanum, Dog-toothed violet
© John Pickering, 2004-2019 · 10
Erythronium americanum, Dog-toothed violet

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Erythronium americanum, Yellow Trout-lily
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Erythronium americanum, Yellow Trout-lily
Erythronium americanum, Yellow Trout-lily
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 7
Erythronium americanum, Yellow Trout-lily

Erythronium americanum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Erythronium americanum

Erythronium americanum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum, inflorescence - lateral view of flower
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Erythronium americanum, inflorescence - lateral view of flower

Erythronium americanum, inflorescence - frontal view of flower
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Erythronium americanum, inflorescence - frontal view of flower
Erythronium americanum, whole plant - in flower - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Erythronium americanum, whole plant - in flower - general view

Erythronium americanum, stem - showing leaf bases
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Erythronium americanum, stem - showing leaf bases
Erythronium americanum, inflorescence - ventral view of flower + perianth
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Erythronium americanum, inflorescence - ventral view of flower + perianth

Erythronium americanum, leaf - basal or on lower stem
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Erythronium americanum, leaf - basal or on lower stem
Erythronium americanum
© Copyright Henning Von Schmeling, 2008 · 1
Erythronium americanum

Erythronium americanum
© Copyright Jeff Miller, 2009 · 1
Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum, Yellow Trillium
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 1
Erythronium americanum, Yellow Trillium

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Andrenidae  Andrena arabis @ CUIC_ENT (2)

Andrena carlini @ CUIC_ENT (32)

Andrena erythronii @ CUIC_ENT (17)

Andrena nasonii @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Halictidae  Augochlora pura @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Lasioglossum coeruleum @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Lasioglossum quebecense @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Megachilidae  Osmia lignaria @ CUIC_ENT (2)
Protomycetaceae  Protomyces erythronii @ BPI (7)
Sclerotiniaceae  Botrytis vulgaris @ BPI (1)

Botrytis @ BPI (1)

Ciborinia erythronii @ BPI (6)
Synchytriaceae  Synchytrium @ BPI (1)
Urocystaceae  Urocystis erythronii @ BPI (12)
Ustilaginaceae  Ustilago erythronii @ BPI (3)

Ustilago heufleri @ 160690A (1); 160676A (1); 160690B (1); BPI (86); 160676B (1); 160684B (1); 160684A (1)

Ustilago ornithogali @ BPI (1)

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Following modified from Delaware Wildflowers
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Delaware Wildflowers  •  Scientific names

Erythronium americanum Ker-Gawl. subsp. americanum Yellow Trout-lily
Liliaceae — Lily family
Native
Erythronium americanum subsp. americanum
White Clay Creek State Park -- Creek Road
April 2003 Erythronium americanum subsp. americanum
Brandywine Creek State Park
April 2007 Erythronium americanum subsp. americanum
White Clay Creek State Park -- Thompson Station Road
April 2012 Erythronium americanum subsp. americanum
Middle Run Valley Natural Area
April 2013 Erythronium americanum subsp. americanum Erythronium americanum subsp. americanum
White Clay Creek State Park -- Judge Morris Estate
April 2014 Erythronium americanum subsp. americanum
White Clay Creek Preserve
April 2014 Erythronium americanum subsp. americanum
Middle Run Valley Natural Area
April 2015 Erythronium americanum subsp. americanum Erythronium americanum subsp. americanum
White Clay Creek State Park -- Possum Hill
May 2015

Search Google Delaware USDA

Photos copyright David G. Smith

Delaware Wildflowers main page

Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
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Erythronium americanum Ker

Erythronium americanum plant

Family - Liliaceae

Habit - Perennial forb with deep bulblike corms.

Stems - Aerial scapes to 20 cm, ascending to erect, unbranched, glabrous. Stolons produced, typically 2-5 per corm.

Leaves - Basal, petiolate, typically two per fertile plant, (one leaf on sterile plants). Blades 1.5-7.0 cm wide, lanceolate to narrowly ovate or elliptic, entire, flat, glabrous, not glaucous, usually somewhat mottled with brown.

Erythronium americanum leaf Leaf.

Inflorescence - Single flower terminating scape, typically only one per plant. Flower nodding.

Flowers - Perianth of 6 tepals, glabrous, strongly reflexed, yellow, sometimes tinged with orange, brown, or green, the petals lacking appendages or with a basal pair of poorly developed, broadly triangular to rounded appendages, if present these not wrapped around the filament of the opposing stamen. Stamens 6, fused to base of tepals. Filaments to 1.7cm long, 1.5mm broad, yellow, glabrous. Anthers 1.3 cm long, red or purple. Stigma 1, 3-lobed, 0.5-1.5 mm long, the lobes stout, spreading. Ovary 1.3 cm long, 3-angled, 3-locular, green, glabrous, superior. Placentation axile.

Erythronium americanum flower Flower.

Erythronium americanum flower2

Erythronium americanum flower3

Fruits - Obovate capsules, the tips broadly rounded or straight across, sometimes with a minute apiculum at the very tip, positioned off the ground by the ascending or gradually spreading aerial stem, usually not erect.

Flowering - March - May.

Habitat - Mesic forests, ravines, along streams, slopes.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Lookalikes - Erythronium rostratum .

Other info. - In Missouri this striking species is found mainly in the southeastern (eastern Ozark) region. Elsewhere its distribution is mostly to our northeast, to the Atlantic coast and into Canada. The yellow flowers are easy to spot against the leaf litter of the woods. This species can be found in colonies of sterile, one-leaved plants along with a few fertile, two-leaved plants. The closely related E. rostratum appears similar, but that species has triangular appendages at the base of the petals which wrap around the opposing stamens. This distinction is far easier to observe in fresh plants than pressed, dried material, so determinations should be made carefully in the field.

Seeds of the plant bear oily elaiosomes. These attract ants which aid in dispersal of the seeds. However, seed set is poor, so plants have alternative vegetative strategies for reproduction. These include horizontal stolons, small offsets of the corm, or new corms which form on the ends of specialized underground stems called "droppers." Dense colonies of the plant can thus form over time.

Erythronium americanum colony
Small portion of colony.

Traditionally the bulbs and leaves of this species were eaten, either raw or cooked. The plant was also used medicinally to heal ulcers and as a contraceptive. However, plant tissues also reportedly have emetic properties. The common name "trout lily" apparently derives from the fancied resemblance of the mottled leaves to lake trout.

Photographs taken at Silver Mines Recreation Area, Madison County, MO, 4-8-2019 (SRTurner).


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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Erythronium americanum Ker Gawl.
dogtooth violet

Image of Erythronium americanum

General Information
Symbol: ERAM5
Group: Monocot
Family: Liliaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Forb/herb
Native Status : CAN   N
L48   N
Data Source and Documentation
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Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Erythronium thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

©Thomas G. Barnes. Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Barnes, T.G., and S.W. Francis. 2004. Wildflowers and ferns of Kentucky . University Press of Kentucky. Usage Requirements .

Tracey Slotta. Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory . United States, MD, Baltimore. Usage Requirements .

©Lawrence S. Gilliam. United States, VA, Grayson Co., damp wooded upland slope. May 11, 2004. Usage Requirements .

©Jim Stasz. United States, MD. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 506. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Liliopsida – Monocotyledons
Subclass Liliidae
Order Liliales
Family Liliaceae – Lily family
Genus Erythronium L. – fawnlily
Species Erythronium americanum Ker Gawl. – dogtooth violet

Subordinate Taxa

The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Erythronium americanum . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Plant is native (blue) Native Plant is introduced Introduced Plant is introduced Native and Introduced Related taxa legend Distribution of <i>
Erythronium americanum</i>
Ker Gawl. ssp. <i>
americanum </i>
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
dogtooth violet Distribution of <i>
Erythronium americanum</i>
Ker Gawl. ssp. <i>
harperi</i>
(W. Wolf) Parks & Hardin
Erythronium americanum ssp. harperi
dogtooth violet

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
Iowa yellow trout lily Threatened

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

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Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (ERAM5)
Native Plants Network (ERAM5)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (ERAM5)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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Following modified from Flora of North America
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Link to Flora of North America home
 
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FNA Vol. 26 Page 154, 162, 161 , 163 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 26 | Liliaceae | Erythronium

18. Erythronium americanum Ker Gawler, Bot. Mag. 28: plate 1113. 1808.

Yellow trout-lily, érythrone d'Amérique

Bulbs ovoid, 15—28 mm; stolons 1—3, common, mostly on 1-leaved, nonflowering plants. Leaves 8—23 cm; blade green, irregularly mottled, elliptic-lanceolate to ovate or elliptic, ± flat, glaucous, margins entire. Scape 10—18 cm. Inflorescences 1-flowered. Flowers: tepals yellow, sometimes tinged light to dark purple-red abaxially, sometimes with reddish dots adaxially, strongly reflexed at anthesis, lanceolate, 20—33 mm, inner with small auricles; stamens 9—15 mm; filaments yellow, lanceolate; anthers yellow, chestnut brown, or lavender; pollen yellow or brown; style deciduous or base forming small apiculum, greenish yellow, 5—11 mm, swollen distally or ± terete; stigma lobes erect or recurved, 1.5 mm. Capsules held erect or at least off ground at maturity, obovoid, 12—15 mm, apex rounded, truncate, or apiculate. 2n = 48.

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora): e North America.

Erythronium americanum is a very common and widespread species, particularly in northeastern North America, becoming less frequent towards the southern and western limits of its range. Nonflowering plants far outnumber flowering ones in most populations because of their extensive stolon production. Plants with brown anthers have been called forma castaneum L. B. Smith.

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Erythronium+americanum+ssp.+americanum+&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Erythronium+americanum+ssp.+americanum+&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 16
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5083 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5084 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5085 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5086 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5087 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5088 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5089 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5090 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5091 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5092 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5093 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5094 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5095 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5096 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5097 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5098 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2019 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Erythronium+americanum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Erythronium+americanum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 37
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Erythronium americanum%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
Trout Lily
ID: 0000 0000 0403 0745 [detail]
© 2003 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
Yellow Fawn Lily
ID: 0000 0000 0903 0660 [detail]
© 2003 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
Yellow Fawn Lily
ID: 0000 0000 0903 0659 [detail]
© 2003 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
Yellow Fawn Lily
ID: 0000 0000 0903 0662 [detail]
© 2003 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
Yellow Fawn Lily
ID: 0000 0000 0903 0663 [detail]
© 2003 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
Trout Lily
ID: 0000 0000 0403 0744 [detail]
© 2003 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
Yellow Fawn Lily
ID: 0000 0000 0903 0658 [detail]
© 2003 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
Yellow Fawn Lily
ID: 0000 0000 0903 0661 [detail]
© 2003 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
Trout Lily
ID: 0000 0000 0405 1065 [detail]
© 2005 George Rembert

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
Trout Lily
ID: 0000 0000 0405 1066 [detail]
© 2005 George Rembert

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
Yellow Troutlily
ID: 0000 0000 0406 1634 [detail]
© 2006 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
ID: 0000 0000 0506 1885 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
ID: 0000 0000 0506 1886 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
ID: 0000 0000 0506 1887 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
ID: 0000 0000 0506 1888 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
ID: 0000 0000 0510 2179 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
ID: 0000 0000 0510 2180 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
ID: 0000 0000 0510 2182 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
ID: 0000 0000 0510 2183 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
ID: 0000 0000 0510 2184 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Erythronium americanum
Erythronium americanum
Trout Lily
ID: 0000 0000 0117 1178 [detail]
© 2017 Betty Rembert

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5083 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5084 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum
Yellow Trout-lily
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5085 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2019 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Updated: 2019-10-15 16:32:53 gmt
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