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Gaultheria shallon Pursh
SHALLON
Gaultheria procumbens auct, non L; Salal

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Ericaceae   Gaultheria

Gaultheria shallon, whole tree or vine - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Gaultheria shallon, whole tree or vine - general

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Gaultheria shallon, leaf - whole upper surface
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Gaultheria shallon, leaf - whole upper surface
Gaultheria shallon, twig - orientation of petioles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Gaultheria shallon, twig - orientation of petioles

Gaultheria shallon, leaf - margin of upper + lower surface
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Gaultheria shallon, leaf - margin of upper + lower surface
Gaultheria shallon, fruit - immature
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Gaultheria shallon, fruit - immature

Gaultheria shallon, fruit - immature
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Gaultheria shallon, fruit - immature
Gaultheria shallon, bark - of a small tree or small branch
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Gaultheria shallon, bark - of a small tree or small branch

Gaultheria shallon, fruit - as borne on the plant
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Gaultheria shallon, fruit - as borne on the plant
Gaultheria shallon, fruit - as borne on the plant
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Gaultheria shallon, fruit - as borne on the plant

Gaultheria shallon, fruit - lateral or general close-up
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Gaultheria shallon, fruit - lateral or general close-up
Gaultheria shallon, fruit - lateral or general close-up
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Gaultheria shallon, fruit - lateral or general close-up

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aleyrodidae  Trialeurodes @ CSCA_TCN (2)
Amphisphaeriaceae  Pestalotia gibbosa @ BPI (11)

Pestalotia @ BPI (2)
Aphididae  Ericaphis @ AMNH_PBI (5)
Apidae  Bombus flavifrons @ BBSL (19)

Bombus melanopygus @ BBSL (2)

Bombus mixtus @ BBSL (11)

Bombus sitkensis @ BBSL (1)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Dothiorella @ BPI (1)

Phyllosticta gaultheriae @ 352369A (1); 352369B (1); BPI (20)

Phyllosticta shallon @ BPI (2)

Phyllosticta sparsa @ BPI (1)

Phyllosticta @ BPI (2)
Dermateaceae  Dermea gibbosa @ BPI (1)
Diaporthaceae  Phomopsis @ BPI (3)
Elsinoaceae  Elsinoe ledi @ BPI (6)
Erysiphaceae  Microsphaera diffusa @ BPI (1)
Helotiaceae  Pestalopezia brunneopruinosa @ BPI (2)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Dasyscyphus gaultheriae @ 661744B (1); 661744A (1); BPI (3)

Lachnum gaultheriae @ BPI (1)
Megachilidae  Osmia pikei @ EMEC (1)
Meliolaceae  Meliola niessliana @ BPI (12)
Miridae  Tupiocoris similis @ AMNH_ENT (7)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Mycosphaerella gaultheriae @ 608348A (1); BPI (15); 608348B (1)
Phacidiaceae  Ceuthospora gaeumannii @ BPI (2)

Phacidium gaultheriae @ BPI (4)

Phacidium vaccinii @ BPI (2)
Phaeosphaeriaceae  Ophiobolus @ BPI (1)
Pseudococcidae  Puto pacificus @ CSCA_TCN (1)
Rhytismataceae  Coccomyces coronatus @ BPI (3)

Coccomyces dentatus @ BPI (2)

Coccomyces tumidus @ BPI (1)

Lophodermium exaridum @ BPI (2)
Sclerotiniaceae  Valdensia heterodoxa @ BPI (1)
Stictidaceae  Stictis radiata @ BPI (1)
Xylariaceae  Hypoxylon exutans @ BPI (1)
_  Aulacorthum( @ AMNH_PBI (11)

Chaetotrichum macrosporum @ BPI (2)

Lophodermina exarida @ BPI (1)

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Following modified from Virginia Tech Dendrology
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Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GASH ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GASH
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GASH ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=GASH
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=GASH ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=GASH
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Gaultheria shallon Pursh
salal

Image of Gaultheria shallon

General Information
Symbol: GASH
Group: Dicot
Family: Ericaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Shrub
Subshrub
Native Status : AK   N
CAN   N
L48   N
Characteristics
Data Source and Documentation
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Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Gaultheria thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Brother Alfred Brousseau. Provided by St. Mary's College of California . ©St. Mary's College of California. Usage Requirements .

Steve Hurst. Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory . United Kingdom, England, Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens. Usage Requirements .

©Mark W. Skinner. United States, CA, Humboldt Co., Kneeland Road. July 28, 1983. Usage Requirements .

©Mark W. Skinner. United States, CA, Humboldt Co., Kneeland Road. July 28, 1983. Usage Requirements .

©Richard A. Howard. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Richard A. Howard Photograph Collection . United States, WA, Seattle. Usage Requirements .

©Richard A. Howard. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Richard A. Howard Photograph Collection . United States, WA, Seattle. Usage Requirements .

©Richard A. Howard. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Richard A. Howard Photograph Collection . United Kingdom, England, Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens. Usage Requirements .

©Lindsey Koepke. United States, WA, Pierce Co., Ashford, Tahoma Woods. June 2, 2005. Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Dilleniidae
Order Ericales
Family Ericaceae – Heath family
Genus Gaultheria L. – snowberry
Species Gaultheria shallon Pursh – salal

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Alaska FAC
Arid West FACU
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast FACU

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (GASH)
CalPhotos (GASH)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (GASH)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (GASH)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (GASH)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (GASH)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (GASH)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Martin Minor Minor Minor
Quinlan Minor

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Martin
Quinlan Low

Sources

Martin, A.C., H.S. Zim, and A.L. Nelson. 1951. American wildlife and plants: A guide to wildlife food habits . Dover Publications. New York.
Quinlan, S.E., and S. Cuccarese. 2004. Native Alaskan and exotic plants used by wildlife . Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Anchorage.

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover
High Average 25-50% of diet Regular source of cover
Low 5-10% of diet Infrequently used as cover
Minor 2-5% of diet Sparsely used as cover
Moderate Average 10-25% of diet Occasional source of cover


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Following modified from Flora of North America
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Link to Flora of North America home
 
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FNA Vol. 8 Page 511, 512, 514 , 515 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 8 | Ericaceae | Gaultheria

6. Gaultheria shallon Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 283, plate 12. 1813.

Salal, shallal

Shrubs, creeping, not mat-forming, rhizomatous. Stems erect to partially erect, (greenish), 50-200+ cm, ± glandular-hairy, glabrescent. Leaf blades oval to ovate or orbiculate to reniform, 4-8+ cm, base rounded or cordate, margins serrulate (teeth fimbriate apically), apex mucronate/apiculate or aristate, surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences axillary, drooping, secund racemes; peduncle deep pink to red, 7-15+ cm, densely glandular-hairy; bracts white to light pink, deltate, 4-6 mm, not exceeding sepals, glandular-hairy marginally. Pedicels white, 7-10 mm, densely glandular-hairy; bracteoles 1-5, pinkish white, parallel-veined, oblanceolate, 3-5 mm, densely glandular-hairy. Flowers: sepals 5, distinct nearly to base, dark pink to red, narrowly deltate, 3.5-5 mm, glandular-hairy (hairs reddish); petals 5, connate nearly their entire lengths, white to light pink, 7-8 mm, densely glandular-hairy, corolla narrowly urceolate, lobes 1 mm; filaments widest proximally, glabrous, papillose; anthers with 2 apical, bifurcating awns, dehiscent by subterminal pores proximal to awns. Fruits black-purple, 6-8 mm wide. 2 n = 22, 44.

Flowering May-early Jul; fruiting late Jul-Sep. Woods and transition zones, moist soils, rocky or sandy cliffs, coastal bluffs; 0-1300 m; B.C.; Alaska, Calif., Oreg., Wash.; introduced in nw Europe.

Fruits of Gaultheria shallon are a food source for animals, and the evergreen leaves provide additional food throughout the winter. This species has been used as a vegetative cover in disturbed areas because it spreads aggressively. The fresh and dried or smoked fruits were an important food of native peoples throughout its range. The evergreen leaves are used commercially in floral arrangements.

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Gaultheria+shallon&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Gaultheria+shallon&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 71
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Gaultheria shallon%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 6068 1631 1521 0074 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 8120 3181 4565 0053 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 8253 3202 4137 0066 [detail]
Beatrice F. Howitt
© 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 8120 3181 4014 0135 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 8120 3181 4014 0137 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 6068 1631 1521 0072 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 8120 3181 4897 0025 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 0000 0000 1102 0361 [detail]
© 2002 University of California Museum of Paleontology

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 1335 3153 0213 0029 [detail]
Robert Potts
© 2002 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 9189 3301 3549 0115 [detail]
Robert Potts
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 1335 3153 0669 0118 [detail]
Sherry Ballard
© 2002 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 8253 3202 4147 0078 [detail]
Beatrice F. Howitt
© 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 0024 3291 1997 0065 [detail]
Sherry Ballard
© 2000 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 6068 1631 1521 0071 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 8120 3181 4565 0004 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 8120 3181 4016 0065 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 8253 3202 4137 0065 [detail]
Beatrice F. Howitt
© 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 9189 3301 3549 0116 [detail]
Robert Potts
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 8120 3181 4014 0136 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 6068 1631 1521 0073 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 6068 1631 1521 0070 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 9092 3191 3543 0029 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 0024 3291 1999 0131 [detail]
Sherry Ballard
© 2000 California Academy of Sciences

Gaultheria shallon
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
ID: 2222 0604 0010 0003 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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