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Hylaeus leptocephalus (Morawitz, 1871)
Prosopis leptocephala Morawitz, 1871; Hylaeus bisinuatus Förster, 1871; Prosopis discrepans Schenck, 1875; Prosopis stevensi Crawford, 1913; Prosopis incompleta Alfken, 1937; Hylaeus (Hylaeus) stevensi (Crawford, 1913)

Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Colletidae   Hylaeus
Subgenus: Hylaeus

Hylaeus leptocephalus, male, face
© Copyright source/photographer · 9
Hylaeus leptocephalus, male, face

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Hylaeus leptocephalus, -female, -back
© Copyright source/photographer · 9
Hylaeus leptocephalus, -female, -back
Hylaeus leptocephalus, -male, -back
© Copyright source/photographer · 9
Hylaeus leptocephalus, -male, -back

Hylaeus leptocephalus, -male, -side
© Copyright source/photographer · 9
Hylaeus leptocephalus, -male, -side
Hylaeus leptocephalus, Mid-Atlantic Phenology
© Copyright source/photographer · 9
Hylaeus leptocephalus, Mid-Atlantic Phenology

Hylaeus leptocephalus
© Copyright Hadel Go 2014 · 8
Hylaeus leptocephalus
Hylaeus leptocephalus
© Copyright Hadel Go 2014 · 8
Hylaeus leptocephalus

Hylaeus leptocephalus m
© Copyright Hadel Go 2014 · 7
Hylaeus leptocephalus m
Hylaeus leptocephalus
© Copyright Hadel Go 2014 · 7
Hylaeus leptocephalus

Hylaeus leptocephalus FEM CFP comp
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Hylaeus leptocephalus FEM CFP comp
Hylaeus leptocephalus MALE mm .x f
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Hylaeus leptocephalus MALE mm .x f

Hylaeus leptocephalus m
© Copyright Hadel Go 2014 · 6
Hylaeus leptocephalus m
Hylaeus leptocephalus, f, side, Dorchester Co, MD ---.. ZS PMax UDR
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Hylaeus leptocephalus, f, side, Dorchester Co, MD ---.. ZS PMax UDR

Hylaeus leptocephalus, m, back, Dorchester Co, MD ---.
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Hylaeus leptocephalus, m, back, Dorchester Co, MD ---.
Hylaeus leptocephalus, m, face, Dorchester Co, MD ---.
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Hylaeus leptocephalus, m, face, Dorchester Co, MD ---.
Overview
Reprinted from: Snelling, R. 1970. STUDIES ON NORTH AMERICAN BEES OF THE GENUS HYLAEUS. 5. THE SUBGENERA HYLAEUS. S. STR. AND PARAPROSOPIS (HYMENOPTERA: COLLETIDAE) Contributions in Science, No. 180.

This species is not closely related to any other in the Nearctic fauna, but is very similar to the Palearctic H. bisinuatus Forster. The two are so closely related that I know of no reliable external feautres which will separate them. The male terminalia of the two are very similar to one another. More material must be studied, however, to determine whether they are conspecific or not.

This species has recently been introduced into Hawaii (Beardsley, 1959), and is evidently adventive in parts of its range where it is now quite common. I believe that this species has extended its range appreciably within the past 50 years. The earliest known capture of this species is in 1912 at Fargo, North Dakota; these specimens form the type series. The species has been collected in North Dakota on many occasions since then, but remained rare in Hylaeus samples taken until after 1925. After this date it became increasingly common, until it is now the species most frequently captured.

The earliest records outside of North Dakota are 1915 (Colorado) and 1916 (Alberta, Canada). Earliest records for other states, proceeding west from North Dakota to the Pacific coast, are: Wyoming and Idaho (1920), Utah (1922), British Columbia and Washington (1925) and California (1933). This species is found in eleven states east of the Mississippi River; the earliest date of capture which I have seen is 1927 in Massachusetts. In none of his numerous papers on eastern bees does Robertson mention this bee; this species is so distinctly different from the remaining eastern Hylaeus that he certainly would have recognized it as different from any previously described. Within California the earliest record for this species is 1933 at Sacramento. There are few records in the 1930's and 1940's. But, beginning with 1950 there are abundant records, largely from the Central Valley area. My greatest field acquaintance with this species is in California, so the following observation must be considered with this point in mind. All of the California records are within, or on the periphery of, agricultural cultivated areas. I can affirm, further, that the bulk of my records from most of the area west of the Continental Divide come from similar situations, as nearly as I have been able to determine.

This bee is of further interest in that it alone of all the species of Hylaeus, s. str., exhibits a pronounced tendency toward oligolecty on flowers of the family Leguminosae. Of 87 specimens bearing floral data, 56 were taken on Melilotus species. These legumes are introduced from the Palearctic region. Of the remaining 31 records, 13 are from introduced Palearctic plants in other families (Amaranthaceae, Umbelliferae, Cruciferaceae, Tamaricaceae, Leguminosae) and eight of these are records of males. The remaining 18 records involve the families Polygonaceae, Asclepiadaccae, Salicaceae and Compositae, all belonging to genera represented in the Palearctic region: six of these records are of males.

The above data would seem to indicate the possibility that this species was introduced into the area around Fargo, North Dakota sometime prior to 1912. Once established there it began to extend its distribution both east and west and by 1925 apparently reached both coasts; subsequent distribution has been extended southward, so that this species now occurs in southern California, Oklahoma and Georgia. It is now a well-established part of our fauna and appears to be oligolectic on the legume genus M eli/ollis. If this is, in fact, an introduced species, it may well prove to be a synonym of a described Palearctic species. This, however, may not be decided for many years yet due to the extremely chaotic status of the taxonomy of European Hylaeus.

It is possible that this species is a native component which was, prior to the first quarter of the century, a very rare species. Subsequent to that time the increased abundance of a suitable food-source plant (the introduced genus Melilotus) and the conditions of an unbalanced ecology may have permitted this species first to thrive in its native region and then to spread out to other, similarly disturbed areas. Of numerous series of specimens reared from soda straw traps by A. R. Gittins in Idaho, many are referrable to H. stevensi. This species, then, is strongly apt to exploit artificial nesting possibilities, such as exist in and around farm buildings.


Identification
Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1960 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 141.

FEMALE—Length 5-6 mm.; black, antennae piceous above, more testaceous beneath; face marks pale yellow, filling area between clypeus and eyes, abruptly truncate at level of antennae; tubercles, transverse marks on collar, tegulae anteriorly, pale yellow; posteriorly the tegulae are ferruginous; wings very lightly infuscated, veins and stigma brownish; tibiae yellow at base, legs otherwise dark; face narrowed below; cheeks slightly more than half as broad as eyes in lateral view; facial foveae rather short and obscure, linear, separated from eyes by about an equal space, not at all divergent above; basal segment of flagellum about as long as broad, 2nd and 3rd segments distinctly broader than long, 4th nearly as long as broad, the following segments fully so; punctures of face below antennae shallow, obscure and sparse, more coarse, deep and distinct above antennae, well separated but not sparse; very coarse and deep on thorax above, quite close over most of scutum, somewhat more sparse on scutellum, and even more coarse and close on pleura; dorsal area of propodeum quite extensive, hardly distinguishable from metanotum, both very coarsely rugose; abdomen shining, very finely but distinctly punctate, rather sparsely so on basal segment, closer on the more apical segments.


MALE—Length 4-6 mm.; black; antennae pale ferruginous, scape blackish, maculated; tegulae more piceous, maculated; wings lightly infuscated, veins and stigma brownish-piceous; mandibles and labrum black; maculations cream-colored, as follows: entire face below antennae, supraclypeal mark extended upward between antennae, lateral face marks obliquely truncate above antennae, very slightly divergent from eyes above, narrow anterior stripe on scape, large blotch - on tegulae, transverse marks on collar, tubercles, front tibiae in large part, and apex of femur, basal portions of mid and hind tibiae, and mid and hind basitarsi; other tarsal segments, including entire front tarsi and anterior face of front tibiae more ferruginous; face narrow, elongate; eyes convergent below; cheeks about half as wide as eyes in lateral view; scape slender, no broader than flagellum, slightly curved, basal segment of flagellum considerably broader than long, length and breadth of 2nd and following segments subequal; front coxae simple; dorsal area of propodeum rather extensive, hardly distinguishable from metanotum, both being very coarsely rugose, scutum and scutellum shining, very coarsely and deeply punctate, punctures well separated but not sparse, punctures on pleura even more coarse and quite close; abdomen deeply and distinctly, although relatively finely punctate, rather sparsely so on basal segment, closer on the more apical segments.

DISTRIBUTION—In the East this species has been collected in Michigan, New York, New Jersey, Indiana, District of Columbia, Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia, as also in Quebec and Ontario. It is in flight from May until September.

FLOWER RECORDS—Only one flower collection record has been made, one specimen having been collected on cow-pea (Vigna inensis), at Raleigh, North Carolina.


Names
Scientific source:

Supported by

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Adoxaceae  Sambucus canadensis @ AMNH_BEE (2)
Apiaceae  Daucus carota @ UCMS_ENT (1); PN- (3)

Zizia aurea @ AMNH_BEE (31)
Apocynaceae  Apocynum cannabinum @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Asclepias verticillata @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Asteraceae  Cirsium spp @ PN- (2)

Grindelia squarrosa @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Helianthus petiolaris @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Solidago canadensis @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Symphyotrichum ericoides @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Symphyotrichum pilosum @ PN- (1)
Brassicaceae  Sisymbrium altissimum @ AMNH_BEE (10)
Fabaceae  Alhagi sp @ BBSL (2)

Dalea candida @ AMNH_BEE (7)

Melilotus indica @ BBSL (3)

Melilotus officinalis @ AMNH_BEE (46)

Melilotus sp @ BBSL (4)
Scrophulariaceae  Agalinis tenuifolia @ AMNH_BEE (2)
Tamaricaceae  Tamarix gallica @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Tamarix @ AMNH_BEE (4)
_  Clover @ BBSL (1)

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Following modified from Slovenian Museum of Natural History
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Face of a male from Sečovlje, Fontanigge, collected in July 1999.

 

Hylaeus leptocephalus (Morawitz, 1870)

 

 

European species. In Slovenia in the Sečovlje salt-pans (sub-Mediterranean) and Podčetrtek (sub-Pannonian region).

Probably polylectic species. Nests in pre-existing cavities.

Univoltine. Flies from June to August.

 

Razširjenost vrste v Sloveniji.

V Sečoveljskih solinah in Podčetrtku.

 

Andrej Gogala: Bee fauna of Slovenia

Updated: 2019-10-23 02:44:53 gmt
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