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Lasioglossum zephyrum (Smith, 1853)
Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Halictidae   Lasioglossum

Lasioglossum zephyrum, Mid-Atlantic Phenology
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Lasioglossum zephyrum, Mid-Atlantic Phenology

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Lasioglossum zephyrum
Lasioglossum zephyrum
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Lasioglossum zephyrum

Identification Summary: Large to moderate sized; dark with green metallic overtones on very glossy scutum; tergites at time with distinct metallic green gloss in sharp contrast to the bright white appressed hairs; face hairier than most other species; mesepisturnum very smooth with shallow but usually distinct pits; propodeal triangle with striations that usually only make it half way from the base or less; size of individuals can vary a good deal.

Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1960 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 141.

FEMALE—Length 5-7 mm.; entire body brassy green, but abdomen more or less reddish, discs of terga more or less bluish across center; pubescence extremely short and thin, entirely pale; head considerably broader than long; clypeus rather broad, projecting about one-half below suborbital line; supraclypeal area broader than long, much shorter than clypeus; eyes very slightly convergent below; lateral ocelli subequally distant from eyes and each other; cheeks much broader than eyes, somewhat swollen behind; face below ocelli shining, punctures deep and distinct, but quite close and fine, becoming minute on the shining vertex; cheeks shining, minutely and obscurely punctate above, becoming obscurely striate below; hypostomal carinae parallel, with the outer angle rounded; lower half of face shining, punctures slightly more coarse and more widely separated than above, those on supraclypeal area fine, evenly distributed and rather close, close along upper margin of clypeus, becoming quite sparsely and more coarsely punctate over apical third which is blackened; scutum and scutellum shining, very finely and rather irregularly punctate, punctures much finer, but distributed much as in rohweri (fig. 99); pleura shining, punctures variable in size, rather distinct above but becoming obscured below; dorsal area of propodeum rather dull but smooth, with a basal fringe of very short, incomplete striae, lateral faces smooth and shining; wings subhyaline, veins and stigma reddish-testaceous; tegulae reddish-hyaline; legs piceous basally, becoming somewhat reddened apically; abdominal terga shining, punctures very minute but rather close across base of each tergum, becoming sparse and scattered apically, apical margins quite broadly but rather faintly impressed, this area somewhat reddened; pubescence of terga 3 and 4 rather thin, not obscuring the surface, that on 2 and 3 rather dense across base.

MALE—Length 6-7 mm.; head and thorax bright green, abdomen reddish beneath, terga more or less reddish but with strong green reflections, margins reddened; pubescence short, thin, entirely white, quite dense on cheeks and lower portion of face; head about as broad as long; clypeus convex, quite narrow, projecting slightly over one-half below suborbital line; eyes convergent below; lateral ocelli slightly nearer eyes than to each other; antennae very slightly nearer eyes than to each other, basal segment of flagellum about as broad as long, slightly longer than pedical, following segments nearly twice as long as broad, entire flagellum dull ferruginous, scape and pedicel piceous; cheeks somewhat narrower than eyes; face below ocelli somewhat shining, punctures distinct and rather deep, but very close and fine, becoming minute and obscure on the shining vertex; cheeks shining, obscurely punctate above, becoming finely striate below; hypostomal carinae subparallel; puncturation of lower half of face obscured by dense, white tomentum, close and fine in general, even on supraclypeal area and over most of clypeus; scutum and scutellum shining, punctures well separated but hardly sparse, rather deep and distinct, slightly closer at extreme sides; pleura shining, rather deeply, closely and coarsely punctate, punctures becoming minute and more sparse posteriorly; dorsal area of propodeum rather coarsely striate, apical margin smooth and more or less rounded, lateral surfaces somewhat shining, finely subrugose; wings subhyaline, veins testaceous, stigma somewhat more reddened; tegulae yellowish-hyaline; femora piceous, tibiae reddish medially but more or less yellow at base and apex, tarsi yellowish; abdominal terga shining, very minutely but rather closely and evenly punctate, punctures becoming somewhat more scattered and sparse on each tergum apically, apical margins slightly and narrowly impressed; apical margin of sternum 5 very slightly incurved; median lobe of sternum 7 rather short, rounded and slightly narrowed apically; gonostylus of armature as shown (fig. 102), retrorse lobe small, well covered with short and fine pubescence.

DISTRIBUTION—Minnesota and Ontario to the New England states, south to Texas and Georgia; March to October.

FLOWER RECORDS—Althaea, Apocynum, Aronia, Asclepias, Aster, Baccharis, Barbarea, Castalia, Ceanothus, Cercis, Cirsium, Cornus, Cucurbita, Fagopyrum, Helenium, Helianthus, Hydrangea, Leucanthemum, Lotus, Malus, Medicago, Melilotus, Pontederia, Prunus, Rhus, Rubus, Salix, Solidago, Symplocos, Vicia and Viburnum. Robertson (1929) records zephyrus on the following additional genera: Actea, Amelanchier, Antennaria, Arabis, Asparagus, Blephilia, Cacalia, Capsella, Cassia, Claytonia, Clematis, Crataegus, Cryptotaenia, Diospyros, Dirca, Ellisia, Erigeron, Eupatorium, Evonymus, Gonolobus, Isopyrum, Ludvigia, Malva, Myosurus, Philadelphus, Phytolacca, Polygonum, Pycnanthemum, Radicula, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Ribes, Rudbeckia, Sambucus, Sanguinaria, Sassafras, Scrophularia, Sium, Smilacina, Smilax, Symphoricarpus, Taenidia, Tecoma, Tilia, Verbena, Veronica, Zanthozylum and Zizia.

Retrieved from: Gibbs, J. 2010. Revision of the metallic species of Lasioglossum (Dialictus)in Canada (Hymenoptera, Halictidae, Halictini). Zootaxa; 2591, 362-368

Halictus zephyrus Smith, 1853: 68. ♂. Holotype. ♂ USA, Florida, St. John’s Bluff [BMNH: B.M. Type 17a 993]. Examined. Halictus (Chloralictus) academicus Sandhouse, 1924: 12. ♀ [new synonymy] Holotype. ♀ USA, Colorado, Boulder, 14.v. (I. Bleasdale); [NMNH: 26402]. Examined. Halictus (Chloralictus) vintonensis Sandhouse, 1924: 22. ♀ [new synonymy] Holotype. ♀ USA, Iowa, Vinton, 23.vi.1922 (G. Sandhouse); [NMNH: 26417]. Examined.

Taxonomy. Robertson, 1895: Halictus zephyrus ♀, p. 117 (description); Robertson, 1902: Chloralictus zephyrus, p. 248 (key); Cockerell, 1905: Halictus zephyrus ♂, p. 352 (redescription); Viereck, 1916: Halictus (Chloralictus) zephyrus, p. 706 (key); Michener, 1951: Lasioglossum (Chloralictus) academicum, p. 1111, L. (C.) zephyrus, p. 1118 (catalogue); Mitchell, 1960: Dialictus zephyrus ♀♂, p. 431 (redescription); Krombein, 1967: Lasioglossum (Dialictus) zephyrum, p. 467 (catalogue); Hurd, 1979: Dialictus academicus, p. 1963 (catalogue); Dialictus academicus, p. 1963, D. zephyrus, p. 1973 (catalogue); Moure & Hurd, 1987: Dialictus academicus, p. 87, D. zephyrus, p. 140 (catalogue); Pesenko et al., 2000: Evylaeus zephyrus, p. 42 (review).

Diagnosis. Females of L. zephyrum can be recognised by the diagnostic combination of a moderately large size (5.31–7.08 mm), wide head (length/width ratio = 0.94–0.95), lower paraocular area with dense tomentum obscuring surface, gena wider than eye, hypostomal carina parallel, mesoscutum polished due to weak sculpture with fine punctures that are moderately sparse on central disc (i=1–2d), fine mesepisternal punctures that are often obscure (Fig. 242D), metapostnotal rugae reaching approximately halfway to posterior margin (Fig. 242E), and polished metasomal terga with faint metallic reflections.

Males of L. zephyrum are similar to females but can be further distinguished by clypeus sometimes with brownish yellow band on apex of clypeus, denser tomentum on the paraocular area, elongate flagellomeres (length/width ratio = 1.75–1.86) that are bright yellow ventrally, gena narrower than eye, distinct mesepisternal punctures, tarsi and apices and bases of tibiae pale brownish yellow, stronger metapostnotal rugae nearly reaching the rounded posterior margin, and metasomal terga colour variable from brown with greenish reflections to orange-red.

Redescription. FEMALE. Length 5.31–7.08 mm; head length 1.44–1.80 mm; head width 1.54–1.92 mm; forewing length 3.78–5.06 mm.

Colouration. Head and mesosoma pale green with golden reflections to blue. Clypeus with apical half blackish brown. Antenna dark brown, flagellum with ventral surface yellow-brownish to yellow. Tegula reddish translucent amber. Wing membrane subhyaline, venation and pterostigma amber. Legs brown, sometimes tibial bases and apices, and tarsi reddish brown. Metasomal terga faintly blue-green, sterna brown, apical margins translucent brownish yellow.

Pubescence. Dull white. Mostly sparse. Head and mesosoma with moderately dense woolly hairs (1–1.5 OD), longest on genal beard, metanotum and mesopleuron (2–2.5 OD). Clypeus with scattered tomentum basally. Paraocular area with dense tomentum, obscuring surface. Frons with scattered tomentum. Gena with sparse tomentum. Propodeum with moderately dense plumose hairs on lateral and posterior surfaces (2–2.5 OD). Metasomal terga moderately dense, fine setae. T1 acarinarial fan with dorsal opening, equal to, or greater than width of marginal hair bands. T2 basolaterally, T3 basally and T4–T5 entirely with scattered tomentum not obscuring surface. T2 apicolateral and T3–T4 apical margins with very sparse fringes, virtually absent.

Surface sculpture. Face polished, punctation fine and deep. Clypeus with apical half punctation strong (i=2–3d). Supraclypeal area with punctation moderately dense (i=1–1.5d). Lower paraocular and antennocular areas with punctation dense (i≤d). Upper paraocular area and frons densely punctate (i≤0.5d). Ocellocular area punctate (i=1–1.5d). Gena polished, weakly lineolate. Postgena imbricate. Mesoscutum with fine, deep punctures, punctation moderately sparse between parapsidal lines (i=1–2d), closer laterad of parapsidal lines (i≤d), and on anterolateral portions (i≤0.5d). Mesoscutellum similar to mesoscutum, submedial punctation sparse (i=1–3d). Axilla punctate. Metanotum imbricate. Preëpisternum rugulose. Hypoepimeral area imbricate- punctate. Mesepisternum polished, distinctly punctate (i=1–1.5d) especially from low angle, ventral portion more obscurely punctate. Metepisternum with dorsal third rugoso-striate, ventral portion imbricate. Metapostnotum incompletely rugoso-striate, reaching one half to two-thirds the distance to posterior margin, posterior margin weakly imbricate. Propodeum with dorsolateral slope polished to weakly imbricate, lateral and posterior surfaces weakly tessellate. Metasomal terga polished except apical impressed areas weakly coriarious, punctation distinct on basal halves (i=1–2d), more obscure on apical half (i=1–2d).

Structure. Head wide (length/width ratio = 0.94–0.95). Eyes convergent below (UOD/LOD = 1.12–1.18). Clypeus 1/3 below suborbital tangent, apicolateral margins strongly convergent. Antennal sockets close (IAD/ OAD < 0.5). Frontal line carinate, ending 2 OD below median ocellus. Gena wider than, or subequal to, eye. Inner metatibial spur pectinate with 3–5 teeth. Metapostnotum moderately elongate (MMR ratio = 1.15–1.23), posterior margin rounded onto posterior surface. Propodeum with oblique carina weak, lateral carina moderately strong nearly reaching dorsal margin.

MALE. Similar to female except for the usual secondary sexual characters and as follows. Length 5.06– 7.10 mm; head length 1.32–1.92 mm; head width 1.32–1.87 mm; forewing length 3.60–5.19 mm.

Colouration. Labrum, distal margin of clypeus, and ventral surface of pedicel sometimes brownish yellow. Mandibles yellowish brown. Tegula pale translucent brownish yellow. Legs brown, tibiae with basal and apical portions, and tarsi pale brownish yellow, tibiae with outer margins sometimes infused with brownish yellow. Metasomal terga faintly metallic, sometimes largely reddish.

Pubescence. Face below level of eye emargination with white tomentum, obscuring surface of lower frons and paraocular area. Clypeus, and supraclypeal area not obscured by sparse tomentum. Lower paraocular area completely obscured. Gena with tomentum near eye. T2–T4 with basolateral tomentum. S3–S5 with weak apicolateral hair tufts.

Surface sculpture. Postgena weakly lineolate. Mesoscutellum medial portion sparsely punctate (i=1– 1.5d). Metanotum minutely punctate. Mesepisternum distinctly punctate (i=1–1.5d). Metapostnotum longitudinally rugoso-striate almost reaching posterior margin, posterior margin imbricate. Propodeum dorsolateral slope, lateral and posterior surfaces of propodeum rugulose.

Structure. Head moderately elongate (length/width ratio = 1.00–1.03). Eyes convergent below (UOD/ LOD ratio = 1.30–1.57). Clypeus 1/2 below suborbital tangent, apicolateral margins subparallel. Antennal sockets distant (IAD/OAD > 1.2). Frontal line carinate, ending 1.5 OD below median ocellus. Pedicel subequal to F1. F2 length 1.9–2.3X F1. F2–F10 elongate (length/width ratio = 1.75–1.86). Metapostnotum elongate (MMR ratio = 1.06–1.17), posterior margin rounded onto posterior surface.

Terminalia. S7 with median lobe wide, strongly clavate, apex rounded (Fig. 243F). S8 with apicomedial margin weakly convex (Fig. 243F). Genitalia as in Fig. 243D–E. Gonobase with ventral arms narrowly separated. Gonostylus small, dorsal setae elongate. Retrorse lobe elongate, weakly attenuated, recurved apically.

Range. Quebec west to Alberta, Oregon, south to Florida, Texas (Fig. 244).

Additional material examined. CANADA: ALBERTA: 2♂♂ 15 km S Three Hills, Hwy 21, N51.49484 W113.23214, 702 m, 2.ix.2007 (Gibbs & Sheffield); [PCYU]; 1♀ Edmonton, 25.v.1986 (D. Blades); 2♀♀ Writing-On-Stone, sand pit, 4.viii.1981 (D.B. McCorquodale); [PMAE]; MANITOBA: 1♀ Eli, 19.vi.1968 (T. Harcus); 1♀ Willow Bend, 20.vi.1968 (T. Harcus); [ROM]; ONTARIO: 1♀ Forks of Credit, 14.vi.1968 (P.MacKay); 1♀Haldimand-Norfolk, Nixon West, N42°13´ W080°26´, 22.vii.1995 (L. Packer); 1♀2♂♂ Haldimand-Norfolk, Turkey Point Cliff Face, 11,viii,1984 (L. Packer); 3♀♀ Toronto, Marlee St., N35.663 W082.479, 30.iv.2006 (J. Genaro); 1♀ York University, Keele Campus, Pond Rd. residences, greenroof, 28.vi.2005 (E. Willis); [PCYU]; QUEBEC: 1♀ Gatineau Pk., Mountain Rd., 12.vii.1965 (P.S. Corbet); [PMAE]; USA: ALABAMA: 4♀♀ Clay Co., Clairmont Springs Baptist Ch., 16S N3691367 E599888, 31.v.2007 (J. Hanula, S. Horn & M. Ulyshen); [PCYU]; DELAWARE: 1♂ New Castle Co., N39.5445 W075.57561, 21.vi. (S.W. Droege); GEORGIA: 1♀ Liberty Co., St. Catherines Isl., Rd b/w Windmill 2nd and Gator Pond, 22–27.vi.1995 (A. Sharkov); ILLINOIS: 1♀ Carlinville, N39.1365 W089.9419, 24.vi.2006 (J. Gibbs); 1♀ Carlinville, N39.2787 W089.8898, 24.vi.2006 (J. Gibbs); INDIANA: 1♀ Jackson Co., N38.8799 W0.056, 26.vii.2003 (S.W. Droege); [PCYU]; 1♀ [ANSP]; MAINE: 1♂ Somerset Co., Starks, 13.viii.2006 (M.F. Veit); MARYLAND: 1♀ Anne Arundel Co., N38.7483 W076.5572, 1.vii.2001 (S.W. Droege); 1♀ Garrett Co., N39.3456 W079.4837, 2004 (S.W. Droege); 1♀ Pr. George’s Co., N38.9903 W076.7515, 20.viii.2004 (S. Kolski); MICHIGAN: 1♀ Allegan Co., N42.5538 W086.0437, 28.viii.2003 (S.W. Droege); [PCYU]; MISSOURI: 1♀ Williamsville, 15.viii.1969 (J.T. Becker); [PMAE]; MONTANA: 1♀ Blaine Co., 31 mi E Havre, 27.vii.1975 (L. Herman); [AMNH]; NEBRASKA: 1♀ Douglas Co., N41.2796 W095.9073, 10.v.2007 (S.W. Droege); NEW YORK: 3♀♀1♂ Suffolk Co., 6.ix.2005 (S.W. Droege); 1♂ Suffolk Co., N41.0704 W071.8582, 6.ix.2005 (S.W. Droege); 9♂♂ Suffolk Co., N41.0371 W071.9248, 7.ix.2005 (S.W. Droege); ♂ Suffolk Co., N41.1531 W072.2457, 8.ix.2005 (S.W. Droege); [PCYU]; 1♀ Tompkins Co., Bakers, N Lansing, 6.v.2009 (M.G. Park); [CUIC]; OREGON: 1♂ Farewell Bend SP, N44.30962 W117.22057, 659 m, 27.vi.2007 (Gibbs & Sheffield); [PCYU]; TENNESSEE: 1♀ Lexington, Natchez Trace S.P., 15–19.vi.1972 (G. Heinrich); [PMAE]; TEXAS: 1♀ Travis Co., Austin, N31.361 W097.76, 9.iii.2007 (J.L. Neff); [CTMI]; VERMONT: 1♂ Lamoille Co., Morristown, 4 mi S of Lake Elmore, 10.viii.2006 (M.F. Veit); WEST VIRGINIA: 1♂ near Charleston, N38.4121 W081.64776, 15.viii.2006 (J. Gibbs); [PCYU]; WISCONSIN: 2♀♀ Dane Co., Westport Drumlin, 11.vii.1996 (R.A. Henderson); [IRCW].

Floral records. ANACARDIACEAE: Rhus aromatica, R. copallinum, R. glabra, APIACEAE: Cryptotaenia canadensis, Sium suave, Taenidia integerrima, Zizia aurea, APOCYNACEAE: Apocynum androsaemifolium, ASCLEPIADACEAE: Asclepias, Cynanchum laeve, ASTERACEAE: Ageratina altissima, Antennaria neglecta, A. plantaginifolia, Arctium lappa, Arnoglossum reniforme, Baccharis, Cirsium altissimum, C. arvense, Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, E. strigosus, Eupatorium altissimum, E. perfoliatum, E. serotinum, Eurybia furcata, Helenium autumnale, Helianthus tuberosus, Leucanthemum vulgare, Rudbeckia subtomentosa, R. triloba, Solidago canadensis, Symphyotrichum drummondii, S. lanceolatum, S. lateriflorum, S. pilosum, S. prenanthoides, Tanacetum vulgare, BERBERIDACEAE: Jeffersonia diphylla, BIGNONIACEAE: Campsis radicans, BRASSICACEAE: Arabis shortii, Barbarea, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Rorippa teres, R. palustris, Sibara virginica, CAPRIFOLIACEAE: Sambucus nigra canadensis, Symphoricarpos orbiculatus, Viburnum, CELASTRACEAE: Euonymus atropurpureus, CORNACEAE: Cornus florida, CUCURBITACEAE: Cucurbita, EBENACEAE: Diospyros virginiana, ERICACEAE: Vaccinium, FABACEAE: Cercis canadensis, Chamaecrista fasciculata, Lotus, Medicago, Melilotus, Vicia, GROSSULARIACEAE: Ribes cynosbati, R. uva-crispa sativum, R. nigrum, R. rubrum, HYDRANGEACEAE: Hydrangea, HYDROPHYLLACEAE: Ellisia nyctelea, LAMIACEAE: Blephilia ciliata, Pycnanthemum verticillatum pilosum, LAURACEAE: Sassafras albidum, LILIACEAE: Allium cernuum, A. tricoccum, Asparagus officinalis, Maianthemum racemosum, M. stellatum, Scilla, Triantha glutinosa, MALVACEAE: Alcea rosea, Malva pusilla, NYMPHAEACEAE: Nymphaea, ONAGRACEAE: Ludwigia polycarpa, PAPAVERACEAE: Sanguinaria canadensis, PHYTOLACCACEAE: Phytolacca americana, POLYGONACEAE: Fagopyrum, Polygonum persicaria, P. scandens, PONTEDERIACEAE: Pontederia, PORTULACACEAE: Claytonia virginica, RANUNCULACEAE: Actaea pachypoda, Clematis virginiana, Enemion biternatum, Myosurus minimus, Ranunculus abortivus, R. hispidus, RHAMNACEAE: Ceanothus americanus, Rhamnus lanceolata, ROSACEAE: Amelanchier canadensis, Crataegus aff. “coccinea”, C. crus-galli, C. mollis, Malus pumila, Photinia, Prunus americana, P. serotina, Rosa, Rubus, RUTACEAE: Zanthoxylum americanum, SALICACEAE: Salix amygdaloides, S. cordata, S. humilis, S. interior, S. nigra, SAXIFRAGACEAE: Heuchera americana hispida, Parnassia caroliniana, Saxifraga pensylvanica, SCROPHULARIACEAE: Scrophularia marilandica, Veronica peregrina, SMILACACEAE: Smilax tamnoides, SYMPLOCACEAE: Symplocos, THYMELAEACEAE: Dirca palustris, Philadelphus inodorus, TILIACEAE: Tilia americana, VERBENACEAE: Verbena hastata.

Biology. Robertson, 1901: (possible parasite, nest site); Rau, 1922: (nest site, guard behaviour); Reinhard 1924: (predator, as sp. near zephyrus); Rau, 1926: (nest site, nest architecture, guard behaviour, male behaviour); Robertson, 1926: (possible parasite); Krombein, 1938: (possible parasite, agonistic behaviour toward Pseudomethoca frigida); Bohart, 1941: (stylopization); Evans & Lin, 1959: (predators); Michener & Wille, 1961: (possible parasite); LaBerge & Isakson, 1963: (nest site, nest architecture); Lin, 1964: (to mutillid parasitism); Batra, 1964: (behaviour); Batra, 1965: (associated organisms); Batra, 1966: (life cycle, behaviour); Michener & Brothers, 1971: (observation nest); Michener et al. 1971: (interactions within colonies); Bell, 1973: (initiation of vitellogenesis); Woodring, 1973: (mite association); Barrows & Snyder, 1974: (predator); Kamm, 1974: (effects of temperature, day length, and number of adults on cell and offspring size); Michener, 1974, pp. 5, 46, 50, 51, 55, 57, 59, 61, 67, 77, 85, 87, 95, 96, 98, 109, 114, 115, 119, 128, 211, 212, 222, 240, 244, 247, 249, 250, 274, 276, 280, 281, 282, 285: (larval molts, castes, nest aggregations, colony establishment, queen replacement, colony size, cell construction and provisioning, inspection of cells, sex ratio, caste differences, nest defense, seasonal size variation, orphan workers, division of labour among workers, foraging, nest sites, nest architecture, natural history, sociality); Brothers & Michener, 1974: (ethometry of division of labour); Michener & Brothers, 1974: (origin of altruism); Bell et al. 1974: (nest defense); Bell & Hawkins, 1974: (nest defense); Bell, 1974: (intraspecific nest defense); Barrows, 1975: (male response to female odour production); Kumar, 1975: (cell size); Barrows et al. 1975: (individual odour differences and their social functions); Kukuk & May 1985: (genetic variability); Erickson et al. 1976: (meloid parasite); Breed & Gamboa, 1977: (queen-behavioural control of workers); Michener, 1977: (aspects of caste evolution); Breed, 1977: (interactions among individuals, queen replacement); Kukuk et al. 1977: (contributions of kinship and conditioning on nest and nestmate recognition); Michener, 1978: (parasitism by Sphecodes); Brothers, 1978: (parasite); Breed et al. 1978: (agonistic behaviour, social interactions, behavioural specialization); Greenberg, 1979: (genetic component of bee odour in kin recognition); Kukuk, 1980: (diurnal activity within nest); Ginevan et al., 1980: (effect of ambient air concentration of sulphur dioxide on male flight activity); Buckle & Greenberg, 1981: (nestmate recognition); Greenberg, 1982: (year-round culturing and activity); Buckle, 1982a, 1982b: (queen, nestmate interactions); Getz, 1982: (learned kin recognition); Greenberg, 1982: (male habituation to female odour); Smith, 1983: (female kin recognition by males); Ramberg et al., 1984: (karyotype); Buckle 1984: (queen, forager interactions); Buckle, 1985: (queen-like behaviour in workers); Kukuk, 1985: (aphrodisiac); Smith et al. 1985: (sex pheromone); Kukuk & Decelles, 1986: (dispersion); Crozier et al., 1987: (relatedness, population structure); Smith, 1987: (dominance hierarchy); Smith & Ayasse, 1987: (male mating preferences); Wcislo, 1987: (learning); Greenberg, 1988: (kin recognition); Kukuk & May, 1988: (dominance hierarchy); Smith & Wenzel, 1988: (pheromones, kinship); Kukuk & May, 1990: (diploid males); Kukuk & May, 1991: (colony dynamics); Roulston & Cane, 2002: (effect of protein concentration on body size); Danforth 1999: (phylogeny); Danforth & Ji 2001: (phylogeny); Danforth et al. 2003: (phylogeny).

Comments. Common. The metasoma of the males of this species are variable in colouration ranging from brown with green reflections to partially or completely ferruginous (Batra 1966). This trait may be misleading when attempting to identify male specimens. Although this species can be found on the west coast, it is far more commonly collected on the eastern portion of its range. The name H. vintonensis was previously considered a synonym of H. academicus (see Michener 1951).

Extracted from Jason Gibbs. 2011. Revision of the metallic Lasioglossum (Dialictus) of eastern North America (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Halictini.) Zootaxa.

Lasioglossum (Dialictus) zephyrum (Smith)

Halictus zephyrus Smith, 1853: 68. ♂.

Holotype. ♂ USA, Florida, St. John’s Bluff [BMNH: B.M. Type 17a 993]. Examined.

Halictus (Chloralictus) academicus Sandhouse, 1924: 12. ♀.

Holotype. ♀ USA, Colorado, Boulder, 14.v. (I. Bleasdale); [NMNH: 26402]. Examined.

Halictus (Chloralictus) vintonensis Sandhouse, 1924: 22. ♀.

Holotype. ♀ USA, Iowa, Vinton, 23.vi.1922 (G. Sandhouse); [NMNH: 26417]. Examined.

Taxonomy. Robertson, 1895: Halictus zephyrus ♀, p. 117 (description); Robertson, 1902b: Chloralictus zephyrus, p. 248 (key); Cockerell, 1905: Halictus zephyrus ♂, p. 352 (redescription); Viereck, 1916: Halictus (Chloralictus) zephyrus, p. 706 (key); Michener, 1951: Lasioglossum (Chloralictus) academicum, p. 1111, L. (C.) zephyrus, p. 1118 (catalogue); Mitchell, 1960: Dialictus zephyrus ♀♂, p. 431 (redescription); Krombein, 1967: Lasioglossum (Dialictus) zephyrum, p.467 (catalogue); Hurd, 1979: Dialictus academicus, p. 1963 (catalogue); Dialictus academicus, p. 1963, D. zephyrus, p.1973 (catalogue); Moure & Hurd, 1987: Dialictus academicus, p. 87, D. zephyrus, p. 140 (catalogue); Pesenko et al.,2000: Evylaeus zephyrus, p. 42 (review); Gibbs, 2010b: Lasioglossum (Dialictus) zephyrum ♀♂, p. 362 (redescription,key, synonymy).

Diagnosis. Female L. zephyrum can be recognised by the following diagnostic combination: size relatively large(5.31–7.08 mm); head wide (length/width ratio = 0.94–0.95); lower paraocular area with dense tomentum obscuring surface;gena wider than eye; hypostomal carina parallel; mesoscutum polished, punctures fine, moderately sparse between parapsidal lines (i=1–2d); mesepisternal punctures fine, sometimes obscure; metapostnotal rugae reaching approximately halfway to posterior margin; and metasomal terga polished with faint metallic reflections.

Male L. zephyrum are similar to females but can be further distinguished by the following combination: clypeus sometimes brownish yellow apically; denser tomentum on paraocular area; flagellomeres long (length/width ratio =1.75–1.86), bright yellow ventrally; gena narrower than eye; mesepisternal punctures distinct; tarsi, apices and bases of tibiae pale brownish yellow; metapostnotal rugae longer, posterior margin smoothly rounded onto posterior propodeal surface; and metasomal terga colour variable from brown with greenish reflections to orange-red.

Range. Quebec west to Alberta, Oregon, south to Florida, Texas. USA: AL, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MT, NC, NE, NY, OR, PA, TN, TX, VT, WI, WV. CANADA: AB, MB, ON, PQ.

DNA Barcode. Available. Multiple sequences.

Comments. Common.

Lasioglossum zephyrum is a eusocial species (Batra 1966) and is the most thoroughly studied species of L. (Dialictus) (see Gibbs 2010b for a bibliography).

Extracted from: Sandhouse G. A. New North American Species of Bees Belonging to the Genus Halictus (Chloralictus). No. 2532 - Proceedings U.S. National Museum. Vol. 65, Art. 19.

Female.—About G mm. long; dark blue-green; pubescence yellowish white. Facial quadrangle longer than broad; orbits converging slightly below; the only punctures on the face piliferous; antennae dark, flagellum ferruginous beneath; clypeus and supraclypeal area smooth and highly polished, without punctures, flat; lower half of clypeus black. Mesothorax shining, the only punctures piliferous; disk of propodeum rather long, microscopically tessellate, weakly plicate on the base only; truncation distinct laterally; tegulae very pale testaceous, impunctate. Abdomen obovate, without distinct hair bands, but the segments clothed with rather sparse pubescence; apical margins of segments testaceous. Wings faintly yellowish; anterior wing 4.2 mm. long; stigma and nervures pale testaceous; third submarginal cell subquadrate, a little longer than the second on the marginal; second submarginal higher than broad, receiving the first recurrent nervure quite near the apex. Legs dark, quite densely pubescent; knees and tarsi red.

Differs from lazulis Ellis by the darker color; more weakly punc- tured mesothorax; smooth clypeus and supraclypeal area; sculptur- ing of disk of propodeum distinct.

Distinguished by the very delicately punctured mesothorax, and the clypeus and supraclypeal area very flat and polished,

Scientific source:

Supported by

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
A. newhart  623 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)
Anacardiaceae  Rhus glabra @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Rhus trilobata @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Apiaceae  Zizia aurea @ AMNH_BEE (3)
Apocynaceae  Apocynum androsaemifolium @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Asclepias sp @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Asclepias syriaca @ AMNH_BEE (4)
Asteraceae  Achillea millefolium @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Aster lanceolatus @ AMNH_BEE (26)

Bidens vulgata @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Calendula officinalis @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Erigeron pulchellus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Euthamia caroliniana @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Hypochaeris radicata @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Leucanthemum vulgare @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Pluchea odorata @ UCMS_ENT (2)

Solidago canadensis @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Solidago gigantea @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Solidago tenuifolia @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Solidago @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Symphyotrichum laeve @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Symphyotrichum lanceolatum @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Taraxacum campylodes @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Taraxacum officinale @ AMNH_BEE (5)
Boraginaceae  Hydrophyllum fendleri @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Hydrophyllum virginianum @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Hydrophyllum @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Brassicaceae  Brassica rapa @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Capsella bursa-pastoris @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Cardamine concatenata @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Buxaceae  Buxus sp @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Cannaceae  Canna @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Cleomaceae  Peritoma serrulata @ AMNH_BEE (2)
Convolvulaceae  Convolvulus sepium @ AMNH_BEE (2)
Fabaceae  Medicago sativa @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Trifolium repens @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Vicia sativa @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Lamiaceae  Nepeta cataria @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Physostegia parviflora @ AMNH_BEE (4)
Malvaceae  Malva rotundifolia @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Oleaceae  Ligustrum vulgare @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Poaceae  Galinsoga sp @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Ranunculaceae  Clematis terniflora @ AMNH_BEE (10)

Clematis virginiana @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Clematis @ AMNH_BEE (4)
Rosaceae  Fragaria virginiana @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Prunus armeniaca @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Prunus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Rubus deliciosus @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Salicaceae  Salix alba @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Salix @ AMNH_BEE (9)
Verbenaceae  Verbena urticaefolia @ AMNH_BEE (3)
_  cucurbit @ NLA (25)

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Updated: 2019-08-23 06:29:33 gmt
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