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: 20 - 22;
: 24. This species is distinguished by the following characters: adipose eyelid well developed on posterior half of the eye only; upper jaw narrowly rounded posteriorly, with supramaxilla relatively small without an anterior spine-like extension; gill rakers (including rudiments) 8-10 + 18-21 = 27-30. Colour in life green to bluish green above, silvery to white below, a diffuse dusky blotch on margin of opercle, not bordered above by a white spot; interradial membranes of spinous dorsal fin hyaline to dusky; spinous and second dorsal, anal, and caudal fins dusky yellow, with anterior rays of second dorsal and anal fins often with white tips; caudal-fin lobes often with dark tips; pelvic fins white and pectoral fins hyaline; juveniles with 7 dark bands on body (Ref.
Adults occur in inshore waters of the continental shelf (Ref.
). Feeds primarily on small invertebrates, primarily microscopic crustaceans and molluscs. Caught mainly on hook-and-line (Ref.
Life cycle and mating behavior
, 1999. Carangidae. Jacks and scads (also trevallies, queenfishes, runners, amberjacks, pilotfishes, pampanos, etc.). p. 2659-2756. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). Rome, FAO. 2069-2790 p. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 24.5 - 28.7, mean 27.7 (based on 544 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00652 - 0.02790), b=2.96 (2.80 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Smith-Vaniz, William F.
Capuli, Estelita Emily
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