Reprinted with permission from the University of Nebraska State Museum from:
Ribble, D. W. 1967. The monotypic North American subgenus Larandrena of Andrena (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 6: 27-42.
Please report text errors to: leah at discoverlife dot org.
Because of sexual dimorphism and morphological variation, the status of the name for this species has been confused. It has been considered under nine specific and five subspecific combinations of names. The preoccupation of two names (clypeata Smith and scutellaris Robertson) and several lapsi also account for some of this confusion.
Cresson (1872) described miserabilis (female, male; top of page) and bipunctata (male; middle of page) on the same page. This confusion concerning the sexes continued for some time; the females being known as miserabilis and the males as bipunctata or flavoclypeata. However, as early as 1891, Robertson understood the correct relationship since he had found the bees in copula. Linsley's catalog (1951) lists miserabilis as a junior synonym of bipunctata, an incorrect designation under the 1948 rules of zoological nomenclature then in effect. Timberlake (1951) correctly lists bipunctata as a junior synonym of miserabilis. However, neither of these papers nor any others seem to fulfill the rule of the first revisor in Article 24 of the 1961 International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The synonymy and discussion given above is intended to fulfill this requirement.
A. miserabilis can be differentiated from other Andrena most easily by the characters given above under the monotypic subgenus Larandrena. Although 4,838 specimens were examined during this study, the following description of miserabilis is based on material collected two miles east of Hickman, Lancaster County, Nebraska (May 5, 1964; W. E. LaBerge). This material is from near the center of the range of miserabilis and is representative of the species.
FEMALE. MEASUREMENTS AND RATIOS. — Length, 8.2 mm; width of mesothorax, 2.3 mm; wing length from tegula, 6.4 mm; facial length/width, 1.25; foveal length/width, 2.86.
INTEGUMENTAL COLOR. — Black except: tip of mandible deep red; eye grey; flagellum red-brown below and at tip; wings light amber, veins and pterostigma darker amber; tegula outer margin amber; terga with narrow amber apices; sterna with broad amber apices; distitarsi yellow-brown; tibial spurs light amber; claws amber.
STRUCTURE. — Antenna reaching just beyond tegula; scape reaching lower edge of middle ocellus, slightly longer than flagellar segments 1-4; flagellar segment 1 about as long as 2 and 3 together, tapered toward base; segment 2 slightly shorter than 3, each shorter than segment 4, both slightly tapered; middle segments about as wide as long; ultimate segment rounded in lateral view, pointed in dorsal view, half again as long as broad. Eye about three and a half times as long as broad in anterior view, inner eye margins nearly parallel. Malar space about three times as wide as long. Mandibles decussate in repose, extending to opposite corner of labrum; apex rounded; inner rounded subapical tooth present. Galea with outer margin below palpus expanded into a large lobe; both margins curving downward, tapering to a narrowly rounded apex; surface shiny, with fine reticular shagreening which form shallow, flat bottomed pits. Maxillary palpus with segments in ratio of about 1.3: 2.1: 1.6:1.6: 1.0: 1.6; segments tapering toward bases; segment 6 slender, flattened; segments 5 and 6 extending beyond galea. Labial palpus with segments in ratio of about 1.9: 1.2: 1.0: 1.1; segments tapering towards bases; segment 1 curved; segment 4 slender, flattened; segments 3 and 4 attached subapically. Labrum about three times as wide as long, outer margin broadly rounded from side to side; process half as wide as, more than half as long as entire labrum, raised, shiny, expanded towards base, apex broadly truncated. Clypeus slightly more than half again as broad as long, protruding beyond lower margin of eye by about half width of eye in lateral view, middle third except base smooth and very shiny; rest of clypeus sculptured; punctures large, far apart, edges indistinct; surface shagreened much like galea, except pits larger. Supraclypeal area shiny, with close distinct punctures, surface with reticular shagreening. Genal area in lateral view slightly wider than eye, surface with reticular shagreening. Vertex elevated above eyes, extending past lateral ocellus by one ocellar width; surface between ocelli very rough, with irregular shagreening; punctures indistinct; surface above fovea smoother, shiny, impunctate, with reticular shagreening. Face above antennal fossae shiny, with indistinct punctures, vertical rugae, irregular shagreening. Facial fovea rounded dorsally past eye, dorsally nearly as wide as eye, inner margin tapering two-thirds distance of eye to rounded point.
Pronotum with weak humeral angle, weak ridge extending ventrally from humeral angle, ridge interrupted by weak depressed suture, surface with reticular shagreening. Mesoscutum with indistinct punctures, surface with coarse reticular shagreening; parapsidal lines distinct. Tegula oval, with minute reticular shagreening. Scutellar surface similar to mesoscutal but more punctures, shagreening weaker; later elevated areas with few punctures, shiny. Metanotum like mesoscutum except more punctures. Propodeum with dorsal enclosure concave on anterior margin, posterior margins meeting to form a "V", enclosure sloping gently over anterior two-thirds, posterior third vertical, surface with coarse reticular shagreening, becoming rugose towards base; propodeum with posterior surface divided by deep vertical sulcus, posterior-lateral carinae extending from base of metasoma in a broad "V", posterior and dorsolateral areas on same level and surrounding enclosure, punctures indistinct, slightly more heavily shagreened than posterior part of enclosure; corbicular surface with few indistinct punctures, shagreening less granular and more even than on posterior surface. Mesepisternum with surface similar to mesoscutum. Metepisternum similar to corbicular surface but impunctate below. Middle basitarsus nearly parallel-sided. Hind tibia slender, little wider than basitarsus. Claws with large tooth on inner margin. Anterior tibial spur bent, with broad lamella along basal half on inner margin, spur serrate along distal half of inner margin; middle tibial spur long, nearly straight, serrate along inner margin; hind tibial spurs long, slender, nearly straight; posterior spur longest; spurs serrate along posterior margins. Wings with pterostigma large, nearly twice as wide as prestigma; three submarginal cells; first transverse cubital vein ending several vein widths from pterostigma.
Metasomal terga shiny, with scattered minute punctures, surface with fine reticular shagreening. Pygidial plate broadly rounded, with edges turned upward, triangular center portion abruptly elevated. Sternum 1 emarginate. Sterna with many fine punctures, surface with fine reticular shagreening.
VESTITURE. — White except hairs on tip of abdomen and tarsi amber. Hairs abundant, long, straight, very plumose except: those of facial fovea short; minute, simple setae on eye; hairs absent in center of clypeus; propodeal corbicular hairs few, simple in center, along dorsal margin hairs curved; terga 1-4 hairs (except for apical fasciae) fine, short, weakly plumose, with apical fasciae, interrupted medially on terga 1-3; sternal hairs similar to tergal hairs except subapical fimbriae of long hairs on sterna 3-5; trochanteral flocculus curved. Tibial scopa with long hairs, with few long simple branches, hairs along anterior margin curved posteriorly; other leg hairs variable in structure.
MALE. MEASUREMENTS AND RATIOS. — Length, 7.0 mm; width of mesothorax, 1.7 mm; wing length from tegula, 5.3 mm; facial length/width, 1.22; flagellar segment 1/segment 2, 1.0.
Integument color: Black except: tip of mandible amber; eye grey; clypeus yellow, with two large, lateral subtriangular, hyaline spots; flagellum red-brown below; wings and tegula as in female; terga and exposed sterna with broad amber apices; sterna otherwise dark red-brown; distal part of basitarsi and distitarsi yellow-brown; tibial spurs light amber; claws red-amber.
STRUCTURE. — Antenna reaching just beyond scutellum; scape nearly reaching middle ocellus, slightly longer than flagellar segments 1-3; segment 1 as long as 2, nearly as long as 3, tapered towards base; second segment slightly tapered; middle segments slightly longer than broad; ultimate segment rounded in lateral view, pointed in dorsal view, nearly twice as long as broad. Eye three times as long as broad in anterior view, inner eye margins slightly convergent below. Malar space about four times as wide as long. Mandible as in female only slightly longer, narrower. Galea as in female. Maxillary palpus as in female but segments in ratio of about 1.0: 1.5: 1.1: 1.1: 1.0: 1.0. Labial palpus as in female but segments in ratio of about 1.5: 1.0: 1.2: 1.3. Labrum about two and a half times as wide as long, apical margin broadly rounded from side to side; process covering all but apical margin and lateral fourths of labrum, raised, shiny, expanded towards base, apex broadly emarginate. Clypeus twice as broad as long, shiny, protruding beyond lower margin of eye more than one and a half times width of eye in lateral view, punctures and shagreening as in female only shagreening on entire clypeus. Supraclypeal area, genal area, vertex and face above antennal fossae as in female.
Pronotum with strong humeral angle, ridge extending vertically from humeral angle interrupted by strong depressed suture, surface as in female. Mesoscutum and tegula as in female. Scutellum as in female except lateral elevated area less shiny, with stronger reticular shagreening. Metanotum as in female. Propodeum as in female except carinae much reduced, lateral area like posterior area. Mesepisternum as in female. Metepisternal sculpturing like propodeum outside enclosure. Wings, claws and tibial spurs as in female.
Metasomal terga as in female except tergum 6 emarginate on posterior margin, pygidial plate absent. Exposed sterna as in female except sternum 6 with apical margin undulating with margin alternately bent dorsad and ventrad.
Sternum 7 weakly emarginate at apex with two small lobes, each bearing two long branched setae (fig. 5). Sternum 8 convex, with base expanded into large plate (fig. 4); apex slightly expanded, weakly trilobed; shaft longer than base; sternum with apical half setose; some setae branched; setae not reaching beyond apex. Gonocoxite bent downward; apex expanded in posterior view; posterior surface of apex very setose; few small setae below. Penis valve bent downward, apex expanded, medially expanded with dorsolateral lamellae (figs. 1-3)
VESTITURE. — Color as in female. Hairs as in female except: fringe of hairs along ventral margin of clypeus; facial fovea absent; tergum 6 with longitudinal bare area in center; apical fasciae weak on terga 1-5; hairs specialized for pollen collecting absent.
VARIATION: Specimens from the southeastern United States (scutellata) possess reddish hairs on the scutellum, metanotum and posterior lobes of the pronotum (reddish coloration is more noticeable in females). Some specimens from the Midwest and west coast show similar hair coloring. Other specimens show all gradations between scutellata hair color and specimens with all white hair on the thorax.
Female specimens with a broad impunctate area on the clypeus have been known as miserabilis bipunctata while those with a narrow impunctate area have been known as m. miserabilis (Mitchell, 1960), but intermediate specimens occur. The two forms are sympatric and are even found in the same nesting area (Mitchell, 1960). (No males were matched with m. miserabilis by Mitchell.) Both scutellata and bipunctata are extreme variations of miserabilis (Mitchell, 1960, postulated this for bipunctata but gave it subspecific status) and do not warrant naming.
Specimens show a large variation in size. Female wing length varies from 5.5 to 7.4 mm, while that of the males varies from 4.8 to 6.8 mm. Males do not show the tendency noticeable in some Opandrena specimens in which the head size is increased disproportionately in relation to body size.
Males often have the lower ends of the parocular areas yellow.
Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1960. Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 141.
FEMALE — Length 7-8 mm.; face slightly longer than broad; clypeus broadly convex, projecting slightly less than one-half below suborbital line, smooth and shining, broadly impunctate medially, with fine, scattered, rather irregular punctures on each side, becoming quite close at lateral angles; facial foveae rather narrow, occupying above only slightly more than half of area between eyes and ocelli, covered with pale ochraceous tomentum; space between margin of vertex and lateral ocelli no more than equal to half their diameter; cheeks very slightly broader than eyes, rounded posteriorly, obscurely roughened, punctures very minute and obscure, rather close; malar space extremely short; basal segment of flagellum subequal to 2nd and 3rd combined; process of labrum broadly subtriangular, with a rather broadly rounded apex, fully twice as broad basally as the median length; pubescence of head, thorax and legs entirely whitish, slightly tinged with ochraceous above; thoracic integument dull, finely tessellate, punctures of scutum extremely minute and obscure, rather close anteriorly, becoming more sparse toward middle posteriorly, those on scutellum very minute, irregularly scattered, the surface shining; pleura not visibly punctate; dorsal area of propodeum nearly vertical, rather narrow, triangle obscurely striate toward basal margin; propodeal corbicula rather short, pale ochraceous, with a very short and incomplete anterior fringe; trochanteral floccus well developed, dense and elongate, white; hind tibiae slender and elongate, apex only very slightly broader than basitarsi, scopa rather dense, white, obscurely and finely plumose; front and middle basitarsi slightly narrower than their respective tibiae; 2nd submarginal cell much shorter than 3rd. receiving 1st recurrent near middle; abdominal terga smooth, but rather dull, microscopically tessellate, punctures exceedingly minute and obscure, hardly visible but rather close, apical depressed areas shallow, occupying medially about one-third length of discs, becoming narrowly yellowish-hyaline along rims, discal pubescence extremely short, thin and inconspicuous, obscurely brownish, terga 2-4 with narrow, whitish, apical fasciae, slightly interrupted medially on tergum 2, tergum 5 with a pale brownish-ochraceous, apical fimbria.
MALE — Length 7 mm.; clypeus very slightly convex, projecting about one-third below suborbital line, yellow except for two small black spots and the blackish apical rim, smooth and shining, very finely, obscurely and rather sparsely punctate; space between margin of vertex and lateral ocelli subequal to their diameter; cheeks rather broad and flat, considerably broader than eyes, rather narrowly rounded posteriorly, dull, the punctures inevident; malar space extremely short; basal segment of flagellum subequal to 2nd and following segments which are dull brownish-ferruginous: process of labrum subquadrate. about twice.as broad as long, broadly truncate apically; mandibles of moderate length, with a small, inner, subapical tooth, slightly curved, overlapping about one-third; pubescence of head, thorax and legs greyish-white; thoracic integument dull, tessellate, punctures of scutum extremely minute and obscure, hardly visible, well separated anteriorly, becoming rather sparse toward posterior middle, those on scutellum hardly visible, surface more shining; pleura without visible punctures; dorsal area of propodeum nearly vertical, rather narrow, triangle finely roughened along basal margin; all basitarsi slender and elongate, considerably narrower than their respective tibiae, more or less reddened; 2nd submarginal cell much shorter than 3rd, receiving 1st recurrent slightly beyond middle; abdominal terga smooth, but rather dull, microscopically tessellate. punctures exceedingly minute and obscure, hardly visible, apical depressed areas very shallow medially, occupying less than one-third of median length of discs, reddened, becoming yellowish-hyaline toward rims, discal pubescence very short, thin, erect and pale, terga 2-4 with very narrow, obscure, whitish, apical fasciae, widely interrupted medially on 2 and 3; apical portion of sternum 8 quite robust, sides very nearly parallel, apex rather broadly truncate, covered beneath with short, rather dense pubescence; penis valves slender, flexed apically, quite broadly dilated basally, excavated beneath at sides, gonocoxites quite robust, somewhat dilated just beyond middle, gradually narrowed toward apex, gonocoxal lobes strongly produced, very narrowly rounded.
DISTRIBUTION — Eastern Canada to Georgia, west to Texas, Colorado and California; April to June.
FLOWER RECORDS — Amelanchier, Aronia, Brassica, Crataegus, Fragaria, Ilex, Malus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Pyrus, Rubus, Salix, Spiraea and Viola. Robertson (1929) lists the following additional genera: Antennaria, Arabis, Capsella, Cardamine, Claytonia, Comandra, Cornus, Dentaria, Erigenia, Hepatica, Heracleum, Isopyrum, Ptelia, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhus, Staphylea, Stellaria, Taraxacum, Viburnum and Zanthoxylum. Recorded by Brittain and Newton (1934) on Solidago, and by Michener and Rettenmeyer (1956) on Cercis.
Andrena miserabilis miserabilis
FEMALE — This is quite similar to bipunctata but is somewhat larger (9 mm.) and the clypeus is much more fully punctate, with a rather wide, median, impunctate line, finely and deeply punctate on each side of this line, the more median punctures rather sparse. Females of bipunctata are 7-8 mm. in length, and the clypeus is smooth and impunctate over the median third of its breadth.
DISTRIBUTION — North Carolina to Texas; March and April.
FLOWER RECORDS — Amelanchier, Aronia, Crataegus and Prunus. This has been considered a synonym of bipunctata, but the difference between the two would seem to justify recognition of this form. The form bipunctata seems to be the dominant one, as specimens definitely assignable to miserabilis are rather uncommon. They appear to be distinct morphologically, but are sometimes found in the same nesting area. Moreover, no males, showing any difference from bipunctata, that can be matched with females of miserabilis, have been found. The two certainly do not represent geographic races, and may be only extremes of variation in one species. A population study of some nesting site might yield some data pertinent to this problem.
Andrena miserabilis scutellata
This is a southeastern and coastal form of bipunctata in which the metanotum and posterior margin of the scuteLLum bear a conspicuous tuft of elongate fulvous hairs, in both sexes. This results in a distinctive appearance, markedly different from that of the form which occurs over the remainder of its range. Although this has been placed in synonymy (see Catalog of Hymenoptera, p. 1058), the distinctive appearance would seem to justify its recognition as a subspecies.
DISTRIBUTION — Coastal belt of North Carolina to Florida and Mississippi; January to March.
FLOWER RECORDS — Prunus angustifolia.
Described using the synonymous name: Andrena picta Mitchell
FEMALE. — Length 9 mm.; clypeus somewhat protuberant, broadly convex, projecting fully one-half below suborbital line, smooth and shining, with fine and rather sparse punctures which are well separated, even laterally, without a distinct, elevated, median, impunctate line; facial foveae rather broad, filling most of area between eyes and lateral ocelli (as in seavillensis, fig. 43), covered with whitish tomentum; space between margin of vertex and lateral ocelli, subequal to their diameter: cheeks broader than eyes. rounded posteriorly, smooth but rather dull, punctures exceedingly minute and obscure; malar space very short; basal segment of flagellum slightly longer than 2nd and 3rd combined; process of labrum broadly rounded, full twice as broad as long; pubescence of head, thorax and legs entirely pale, tinged with yellow above and on the more apical leg segments, more whitish below and on the more basal segments; thoracic integument dull and densely tessellate, scutum and scutellum with some very fine, shallow, and quite sparse punctures; pleura not visibly punctate; triangle of propodeum not markedly differing from adjacent areas; propodeal corbicula rather short, with a distinct anterior fringe, whitish; trochanteral floccus well developed, long, dense and white; hind tibiae elongate and slender, apex not much broader than base, scopa white anteriorly, more brownish posteriorly, composed of rather coarse, long and rather loose hairs; all basitarsi quite slender, slightly narrower than their respective tibiae; 2nd submarginal cell considerably shorter than 3rd, receiving 1st recurrent near middle; abdominal terga smooth but rather dull, not visibly punctate, apical depressed areas rather narrow and shallow, becoming yellowish-hyaline along rims, discal pubescence rather copious, erect, entirely pale, forming thin, whitish. apical fasciae on terga 2-4, tergum 5 with a brownish, apical fimbria.
TYPE - Holotype: Female, Ithaca, N. Y., April 24, 1915 [Cornell].
Described using the synonymous name: Andrena seavillensis Mitchell
FEMALE. — Length 9 mm.; face somewhat longer than distance between eyes; eyes parallel; foveae broad, occupying most of area between eyes and ocelli above, terminating below about at level of antennae, covered with pale yellowish tomentum; lateral ocelli separated from margin of vertex by about their own diameter; cheeks slightly broader than eyes; clypeus broadly convex, protruding about one-half below suborbital line, smooth and shining over most of disc but becoming somewhat dull laterally, nearly impunctate, with only a very few scattered, minute punctures over central area, and with a few minute and obscure punctures toward extreme sides; face below ocelli finely substriate, with a few obscure punctures toward antennae, vertex smooth but rather dull, with a few fine and rather close punctures near center and between ocelli, but impunctate laterally, becoming shining just above eyes; cheeks quite smooth, rather dull, with minute and rather widely spaced punctures; malar space evident but short, about one-fourth width of mandible at base; process of labrum broadly triangular, with a very narrowly subtruncate tip, median length about half basal width; basal segment of flagellum slightly shorter than segments 2 and 3 combined, these and the following segments slightly longer than broad; pubescence of head and thorax pale yellowish, quite copious except for the largely bare clypeus, rather short and dense on dorsum of thorax. but not hiding surface, long and copious on thorax laterally; scutum and scutellum dull and densely tessellate, scutum with minute and very obscure, rather widely spaced punctures, scutellum entirely impunctate; pleura smooth but rather dull, becoming somewhat shining and rather sparsely and finely punctate anteriorly and above, entirely impunctate posteriorly; dorsal area of propodeum finely tessellate, rather poorly defined from the lateral densely tessellate areas; propodeal corbicula rather well developed, largely bare centrally, and without an anterior fringe; trochanteral floccus complete; legs somewhat reddened basally, becoming testaceous on apical tarsal segments, slender in general, basitarsi quite narrow and parallel-sided, hind tibiae slender, scopal hairs somewhat elongated, entirely pale yellowish, spurs pale yellow; wings subhyaline, veins and stigma pale yellowish, 2nd submarginal cell about half length of 3rd, receiving 1st recurrent slightly beyond middle; tegulae yellowish-hyaline, somewhat darkened anteriorly; abdominal terga smooth but dull, quite densely tessellate, basal segments with rather widely spaced, minute and barely visible punctures, the more apical segments with similar but somewhat more obscure punctures, apical margins of segments 2-4 rather narrowly and shallowly impressed, these areas very slightly reddened and becoming hyaline along rims, discal pubescence entirely pale, rather obscure but evident, suberect, apical margins of segments 1-4 with rather loose, whitish, apical fasciae, obscure on segment 1, slightly interrupted on 2, apical fimbria brownish.
TYPE - Holotype: Female, South Seaville, N. J., May 20, 1923 (J. C. Bradley) [Cornell Univ.]