Cardamine californica (Nutt. ) Greene
MILKMAIDS
  Dicotyledoneae   Brassicaceae   Cardamine


IDnature guide
Names
Scientific source:

Supported by
Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Apidae  Ceratina acantha @ BBSL (3)

Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
   
Top | See original

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CACA39 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CACA39
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CACA39 ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CACA39
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CACA39 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CACA39
Link: Skip repetitive navigation links
USDA and NRCS Identifier NRCS Logo
USDA.gov Web Site PLANTS photo banner
PLANTS Home  about PLANTS  PLANTS Team  Partners of PLANTS  What  National Plant Data Team Web Site  Help using PLANTS  Contact PLANTS
 
 Search the PLANTS Web site
 Name Search

 State Search
 Advanced Search
 Search Help
PLANTS Topics
 
 Alternative Crops
 Characteristics
 Classification
 Cover Crops
 Culturally Significant
 Distribution Update
 Documentation
 Fact Sheets & Plant Guides
 Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious Plants
 Threatened & Endangered
 Wetland Indicator Status
 
PLANTS Image Gallery
 
 50,000+ Plant Images
 
Download PLANTS data
 
 Complete PLANTS Checklist
 State PLANTS Checklist
 Advanced Search Download
 Symbols for Unknown Plants
 NRCS State GSAT Lists
 NRCS State Plants Lists
 
Related tools
 
 Crop Nutrient Tool
 Ecological Site Information System
 PLANTS Identification Keys
 Plant Materials Web Site
 Plant Materials Publications
 USDA Plant Hardiness Map
 
 
You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Cardamine californica (Nutt.) Greene
milkmaids

Image of Cardamine californica

General Information
Symbol: CACA39
Group: Dicot
Family: Brassicaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Forb/herb
Native Status : L48   N
Data Source and Documentation
About our new maps
Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Cardamine thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

©Gary A. Monroe. United States, CA, San Luis Obispo Co., Coon Creek. April 1, 2006. Usage Requirements .

©Gary A. Monroe. United States, CA, San Luis Obispo Co., Coon Creek. April 1, 2006. Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Dilleniidae
Order Capparales
Family Brassicaceae ⁄ Cruciferae – Mustard family
Genus Cardamine L. – bittercress
Species Cardamine californica (Nutt.) Greene – milkmaids

Subordinate Taxa

The Plants Database includes the following 5 subspecies of Cardamine californica . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Plant is native (blue) Native Plant is introduced Introduced Plant is introduced Native and Introduced Related taxa legend Distribution of <i>
Cardamine californica</i>
(Nutt.) Greene var. <i>
californica </i>
Cardamine californica var. californica
milkmaids Distribution of <i>
Cardamine californica</i>
(Nutt.) Greene var. <i>
cardiophylla</i>
(Greene) Rollins
Cardamine californica var. cardiophylla
milkmaids Distribution of <i>
Cardamine californica</i>
(Nutt.) Greene var. <i>
cuneata</i>
(Greene) Rollins
Cardamine californica var. cuneata
milkmaids Distribution of <i>
Cardamine californica</i>
(Nutt.) Greene var. <i>
integrifolia</i>
(Nutt.) Rollins
Cardamine californica var. integrifolia
milkmaids Distribution of <i>
Cardamine californica</i>
(Nutt.) Greene var. <i>
sinuata</i>
(Greene) O.E. Schulz
Cardamine californica var. sinuata
milkmaids

Legal Status

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
CalPhotos (CACA39)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (CACA39)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (CACA39)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (CACA39)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


 PLANTS Home | USDA.gov | NRCS | Site Map | Policies and Links
Accessibility Statement | Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Statement

Following modified from Flora of North America
   
Top | See original

Link to Flora of North America home
 
All Floras       Advanced Search
FNA Vol. 7 Page 465, 466, 469 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 7 | Brassicaceae | Cardamine

7. Cardamine californica (Nuttall) Greene, Fl. Francisc. 266. 1891.

Dentaria californica Nuttall in J. Torrey and A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 88. 1838; Cardamine californica var. brevistyla O. E. Schulz; C. californica var. cardiophylla (Greene) Rollins; C. californica subsp. cuneata (Greene) O. E. Schulz; C. californica var. cuneata (Greene) Rollins; C. californica var. fecunda O. E. Schulz; C. californica var. integrifolia (Nuttall) Rollins; C. californica var. pubescens O. E. Schulz; C. californica var. robinsoniana O. E. Schulz; C. californica var. sinuata (Greene) O. E. Schulz; C. cardiophylla Greene; C. cuneata Greene; C. integrifolia (Nuttall) Greene; C. integrifolia var. sinuata (Greene) C. L. Hitchcock; C. pachystigma (S. Watson) Rollins var. dissectifolia (Detling) Rollins; C. paucisecta Bentham; C. sinuata Greene; D. californica var. cardiophylla (Greene) Detling; D. californica var. cuneata (Greene) Detling; D. californica var. integrifolia (Nuttall) Detling; D. californica var. sinuata (Greene) Detling; D. cardiophylla (Greene) B. L. Robinson; D. cuneata (Greene) Greene; D. integrifolia Nuttall; D. integrifolia var. californica (Nuttall) Jepson; D. integrifolia var. cardiophylla (Greene) Jepson; D. integrifolia var. traceyi Jepson; D. pachystigma (S. Watson) S. Watson var. dissectifolia Detling; D. sinuata (Greene) Greene

Perennials; usually glabrous, rarely minutely pubescent. Rhizomes (tuberiform, fragile), globose to ovoid or suboblong, (3-)4-10 mm diam., (fleshy, deeply underground). Stems erect, unbranched, (2-)2.7-6(-7) dm, usually glabrous, rarely pubescent. Rhizomal leaves 3 (or 5-7)-foliolate, sometimes simple, 8-25(-38) cm, leaflets petiolulate or subsessile; petiole (5-)8-25 (-32) cm; lateral leaflets (when present) petiolulate to subsessile, blade similar to terminal, sometimes smaller; terminal leaflet (petiolule (0.7-)2-5(-11) cm), blade (of simple leaf) ovate to orbicular to broadly cordate or reniform, (1.5-)2.5-7.5(-10) cm × (12-)20-90(-130) mm, base obtuse to cordate, margins entire or dentate to shallowly sinuate, (often with apiculae at veins ending at margin, sometimes minutely pubescent on veins). Cauline leaves 2-5, usually 3 (or 5)-foliolate, rarely simple, petiolate, leaflets petiolulate or sessile; petiole 1-5(-9) cm, base not auriculate; lateral leaflets sessile, blade similar to terminal, smaller, margins usually dentate, rarely entire; terminal leaflet sessile or petiolulate, blade usually broadly ovate to suborbicular or lanceolate, rarely narrowly oblong, 1-7 cm × (5-)10-47 (-65) mm. Racemes ebracteate. Fruiting pedicels ascending to divaricate, 10-33(-41) mm. Flowers: sepals (erect to ascending), oblong, 3.5-4.5(-5.5) × 1.5-2 (-2.5) mm, lateral pair saccate basally; petals white to pale rose, often broadly obovate, 8-13(-15) × 4-8 mm (clawed, apex rounded); filaments: median pairs 4-6.5 mm, lateral pair 3-4 mm; anthers oblong, 1.2-1.7 mm. Fruits linear, 2.2-5.4(-6) cm × 2-3 mm; ovules 12-22 per ovary; style 2-5(-6) mm. Seeds dark brown, oblong to broadly ovoid, 1.7-2.8 × 1.2-1.8 mm. 2 n = 32.

Flowering Jan-May. Wooded ravines, forest floors, shady slopes, open woods, shady rock crevices, stream banks and bottoms, canyons, moist hillsides, cliffs; 0-1400 m; Calif.; Mexico (Baja California).

The synonymy above suggests that Schulz, Detling, and Rollins did not agree on the characters used or the number and rank of taxa recognized. The taxonomy of this complex is based solely on differences in the number of leaflets, their division, size, and shape, all other aspects of these plants (e.g., rhizomes, flowers, fruits, and seeds) being fairly uniform. Indeed, the infraspecific taxa recognized represent only part of the overall variation in the species, and one is faced with either recognizing poorly defined infraspecific taxa or treating the entire complex as a single polymorphic species. In the absence of thorough biosystematic and molecular studies on this group, we prefer not to recognize any infraspecific taxa.

Following modified from CalPhotos
   
Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cardamine+californica+var.+californica&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cardamine+californica+var.+californica&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 1
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Cardamine californica var. californica%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Cardamine californica var. californica
Cardamine californica var. californica
Milk Maids
ID: 0000 0000 0217 2000 [detail]
© 2017 Dee E. Warenycia

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2019 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
   
Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cardamine+californica+var.+sinuata&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cardamine+californica+var.+sinuata&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 2
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Cardamine californica var. sinuata%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Cardamine californica var. sinuata
Cardamine californica var. sinuata
Milk Maids
ID: 0000 0000 0812 1239 [detail]
© 2012 Jason Matthias Mills

Cardamine californica var. sinuata
Cardamine californica var. sinuata
Milk Maids
ID: 0000 0000 0116 4508 [detail]
© 2016 Jason Matthias Mills

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2019 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
   
Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cardamine+californica&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cardamine+californica&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 223
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Cardamine californica%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milk Maids
ID: 9187 3302 4015 0125 [detail]
Jo-Ann Ordano
© 2000 California Academy of Sciences

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Dissected-leaf Toothwort
ID: 0000 0000 0801 0250 [detail]
© 1997 Dean Wm. Taylor

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milkmaids
ID: 0000 0000 0204 0252 [detail]
© 2004 Christopher L. Christie

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milkmaids
ID: 6043 1631 2694 0029 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milk Maids
ID: 6043 1631 2694 0032 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milk Maids
ID: 6043 1631 2694 0031 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milkmaids
ID: 0000 0000 0204 0254 [detail]
© 2004 Christopher L. Christie

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milk Maids
ID: 6043 1631 2694 0030 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milkmaids
ID: 6043 1631 2694 0028 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milk Maids
ID: 0000 0000 0901 0167 [detail]
© 1997 Dean Wm. Taylor

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milkmaids
ID: 0000 0000 1203 0052 [detail]
© 2003 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milkmaids
ID: 0000 0000 0204 0251 [detail]
© 2004 Christopher L. Christie

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milkmaids
ID: 0000 0000 0204 0253 [detail]
© 2004 Christopher L. Christie

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Bitter Cress
ID: 0000 0000 0302 0076 [detail]
© 2002 Tony Morosco

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Bitter Cress
ID: 0000 0000 0302 0073 [detail]
© 2002 Tony Morosco

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Bitter Cress
ID: 0000 0000 0302 0075 [detail]
© 2002 Tony Morosco

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milkmaids
ID: 0000 0000 0403 0519 [detail]
© 2003 Michael Charters

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milkmaids
ID: 0000 0000 1203 0053 [detail]
© 2003 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
ID: 0000 0000 0407 2107 [detail]
© 2007 Lynn Watson

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
ID: 0000 0000 0407 2108 [detail]
© 2007 Lynn Watson

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milk Maids
ID: 9187 3302 4015 0124 [detail]
Jo-Ann Ordano
© 2000 California Academy of Sciences

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milk Maids
ID: 8253 3202 0179 0062 [detail]
Beatrice F. Howitt
© 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Milk Maids
ID: 8253 3202 3492 0130 [detail]
Dr. Robert T. and Margaret Orr
© 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Cardamine californica
Cardamine californica
Bitter Cress
ID: 0000 0000 0302 0074 [detail]
© 2002 Tony Morosco

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2019 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Links

Updated: 2019-11-22 05:25:29 gmt
Discover Life | Top
© Designed by The Polistes Corporation