Reprinted with permission from: Daly, H. V. 1973. Bees of the genus Ceratina in America North of Mexico (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). University of California Publications in Entomology 74: 1-114. The Regents of the University of California. Published by the University of California Press.
Ceratina neomexicana Cockerell, 1901
Female.—Measurements and ratios: wing, 5.0 mm; hamuli, 5; eye, 110:135:135:135; clypeus, 55 × 120:35:87; interocellar, 25:50:35:60, Ø 15; frontal carina, 60; malar area, 0 × 55; interalveolar, 35:35:45:50, Ø 20; antenna, 50:15:12:10:7:10, Ø15; subpleural signum, 17x3.0 (New Mexico, Santa Fe Co., Santa Fe, cotype).
Structure: Head quadrate in cephalic view; eyes parallel, narrowly rounded above, subtruncate at malar area; frontal carina simple, sulciform beneath median ocellus; vertex and supraorbital area limited posteriorly by preoccipital carina; median portion of hypostomal carina when viewed laterally higher anteriorly where it terminates in a right-angled tooth, when viewed ventrally angle between median and lateral positions about 130°. Basitibial plate acute, its elevated apex at basal 0.30 of tibial length. Metasoma widest at segment 4; gradulus of tergum 4 terminating laterally beyond and below spiracle at a distance of 2.0 spiracle lengths; tergum 6 with median central area flattened; graduli of sterna 2—3 transverse, straight.
Sculpture and vestiture: Head shiny between punctures, largely impunctate on mandible base, clypeal disc, lower supraclypeal area, lower paraocular area, subantennal area, alveolocellar area and a narrow band behind eye; elsewhere with fine punctures more than a puncture width apart and with largely simple setae; punctures closer in interalveolar and alveolorbital areas, posteriorly on vertex, laterally on supraorbital area, and on postgena; setae longer in interalveolar area, vertex, postgena, labral disc, and apically on mandible. Sides of pronotum moderately punctured less than a puncture width apart and often contiguous and rugose, impunctate area before pronotal pit; scutal disc shiny, virtually impunctate except sparsely along lines, fine punctures marginally and as close as a puncture width apart laterally and on axilla; scutellar disc nearly impunctate, fine punctures becoming closer and less than a puncture width apart laterally and posteriorly; metanotum finely punctured throughout, less than a puncture width apart; mesopleuron with coarse punctures about a puncture width apart laterally, becoming more widely spaced posteroventrally, setae narrowly plumose; hypoepimeral area impunctate in lower third; metapleuron medium punctured, about a puncture width apart, impunctate area before metapleural pit; propodeal triangle of about 24 longitudinal carinulae, with some anastomosis and becoming indistinct laterad; angle of propodeum impunctate, minutely coriaceous; sides finely punctured, becoming closer and smaller laterad, with long erect, narrow plumose setae. Metasomal tergum 1 finely punctured on dorsal surface about a puncture width apart medially, virtually impunctate on anterior surface; terga 2-5 with scattered fine punctures on pregradular area near gradulus; postgradular punctures of two types, fine and extremely minute (visible at
50x), the latter type many puncture widths apart; the fine punctures more widely spaced on discs of more anterior terga; becoming denser laterally to about a puncture width apart; each type of puncture with a short appressed simple seta, ground shiny, but subapically minutely roughened, sparsely papillate apically on tergum 5; tergum 6 finely punctured about a puncture width apart or less, ground sparsely papillate basally and rugulose apically; setae short, simple, except central area which is punctured but free of papillae and setae. Sterna finely punctured, about a puncture width apart; setae simple, course, suberect, dense at apex of abdomen; setae of wax glands appressed.
Color: Body metallic dark olive green (ISCC-NBS 126) with minor bluish or yellowish-green reflections, head especially blue; metallic colors lacking on labrum, mandibles, mesoscutal disc, and wax glands. Ivory marks: broad amygdaliform on clypeus, extending almost full length; spots at bases of all tibiae, being largest on metatibia; pronotal lobes. Antennae fuscous, lighter beneath; legs proximally fuscous, femora and tibiae faintly metallic, tarsi apically testaceous; wing membrane testaceous, venation and tegula darker. Body setae pale flavescent.
Male.—Measurements and ratios: wing, 4.5 mm; hamuli, 5; eye, 110:120:110:100; clypeus, 55 × 95:30:80; interocellar, 21:40:25:50, Ø 15; frontal carina, 60; malar area, 0 × 40; interalveolar, 25:21:40:45, Ø 20; antenna, 40:10:15:8:10:15, Ø 16; subpleural signum, 20 × 5 (Cedar Point, Dove Creek, Dolores County, Colorado; Utah State University).
Structure: Read rounded in cephalic view; eyes convergent below, narrowly rounded above, broadly rounded at malar area; frontal carina simple, distinct between alveolae, sulciform beneath median ocellus; vertex and supraorbital area limited posteriorly by preoccipital ridge with a low carina; median portion of hypostomal carina when viewed laterally of low uniform height, terminating anteriorly without a tooth, when viewed ventrally lateral portion arcuate. Ventral profile of metatrochanter rounded, apical anteroventral facet obscure, finely punctured; width of metafemur at tooth 0.5 length, tooth obtusely 120° angled, basal anteroventral facet broad, indistinct, with fine, short setae on rounded surface, ventral edge bare (resembles fig. 10e). Metasoma widest at segments 3—4; gradulus of tergum 4 terminating laterally beyond and below spiracle at a distance of 2.0 spiracle lengths; tergum 6 with median subapical protuberance surmounted by setae (resembles fig. ill); dorsal view of apical plate width 2.0 times length, rounded; sternum 6 with two median teeth partly fused at base (resembles fig. 121). Genitalia presumed to be similar to fig. 29b).
Sculpture and vestiture: Head shiny between punctures, largely impunctate on clypeal disc, upper subantennal area, most of convex portion of alveolocellar area and in narrow band behind eye; moderately punctured on mandible base with minute and fine punctures; gena with medium punctures less than a puncture width apart; elsewhere with medium punctures less than a puncture width apart and with largely simple setae; punctures closer in interalveolar area, sparser in ocellorbital area; sparse setae longer in interalveolar and postgenal areas, vertex, end posteriorly on mandible. Sides of pronotum finely and continuously punctured, impunctate area above pronotal pit extending to beneath dorsolateral angle; scutal disc shiny, virtually impunctate except moderately along lines, flue punctures marginally and less than a puncture width apart laterally and on axilla; scutellar disc moderately punctate, flue punctures becoming contiguous laterally and posteriorly; metanotum finely and almost contiguously punctured throughout; mesopleuron with coarse punctures less than a puncture width apart laterally, becoming more widely spaced posteroventrally, long plumose setae; hypoepimeral area impunctate just above scrobe; metapleuron finely punctured, usually less than a puncture width apart; small impunctate area before metapleural pit; propodeal triangle rugulose, longitudinal carinulae distinct even laterally; angle of propodeum impunctate, minutely coriaceous; sides finely punctured, becoming contiguous and smaller laterad, with erect, plumose setae. Metasomal tergum 1 finely punctured on dorsal surface about a puncture width apart, virtually impunctate on anterior surface; terga 2—6 with scattered fine punctures on pregradular area near gradulus, postgradular punctures fine and uniformly about a puncture width apart, each with a short appressed simple seta; ground shiny, but minutely roughened on terga 5-6; tergum 7 finely punctured about a puncture width apart with shiny ground, apical plate above with long, plumose hairs extending beyond plate. Sterna 1—5 medium punctured, about a puncture width apart; setae fine, suberect, narrowly plumose, longer subapically on each sternum.
Color: Head end thorn metallic very dark greenish blue (ISCC-NBS 175); abdomen similar but cuticle of tergum 1 beneath metallic reflections dark fusco rufous; metallic colors lacking on mandibles which are nearly black. Ivory marks: broad hat-shaped on clypeus, extending full length and width; rectangular spot on labral disc; spots at bases of all tibiae, being largest on metatibia; pronotal lobes. Antennae dark fuscous, lighter beneath; legs proximally nearly black, femora and tibiae faintly metallic, tarsi apically dark testaceous; wing membrane hyaline, venation and tegula dark testaceous. Body setae nearly white.
Male compared with illustrations of other specimens: metafemur and metatrochanter (fig. los), sternum 6 and apical plate (fig. 12b); genitalia tot dissected, but illustrated from another specimen (fig. 29b).
C. neomexicana is widespread from transmontane California eastward to Texas (fig. 23) and is the most common medium-sized species throughout the southern Great Basin. The blue-green metallic color with broad clypeal mark and ivory pronotal lobes, and the coarse mesopleural punctations are distinctive. Larger females may be separated from C. pacifica by the absence of a central hair tuft on the sixth metasomal tergum. Smaller females may be confused with C. nanula which has less coarse punctation throughout and a more greenish color combined with a gently rounded profile of the hypostomal carina which contrasts with the conspicuously angular or toothlike carina in 0. neomexicana. Males of C. neomexicana have a large, obtuse metafemoral tooth with a poorly defined, anteriorly directed facet bearing minute hairs.
The species is most frequently collected in Sagebrush steppe, Juniper-pinyon woodland, mixed conifer forest, Pine-Douglas fir, and many ecotonal associations (fig. 5b). Variation in size exists with the largest specimens from central Arizona (Williams, Oak Creek Canyon; female wing lengths, 4.8—6.5 mm) and slightly smaller, but variable sizes elsewhere (Boulder, Colorado; female wing lengths, 4.77 ± 0.68 mm, range 4.2—5.6 mm, n = 33; male wing lengths, 4.34 ± .143 nun, range 4.0—4.7 mm, n = 4).
Nests were found at Ketchum, Idaho, in dead, dry stalks of Verbascum sp. which were also utilized by C. nanula.