D I S C O V E R    L I F E   
Bee Hunt! Odonata Lepidoptera 
  HomeAll Living ThingsIDnature guidesGlobal mapperAlbumsLabelsSearch
  AboutNewsEventsResearchEducationProjectsStudy sitesHelp


Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus, 1758
FRECKLED PORCUPINEFISH
Fine-spotted Porcupine-fish; Fine-spotted Porcupinefish; Freckled Porcupine-fish; Long-spined Porcupine Fish; Long-spined Porcupine-fish; Longspined Porcupinefish; Atopomycterus bocagei Steindachner, 1866; Long-spine Porcupinefish; Balloonfish; Longspine porcupinefish

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Diodontidae   Diodon

Diodon holocanthus
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Diodon holocanthus

Click on map for details about points.

Links
80x5 - 240x3 - 240x4 - 320x1 - 320x2 - 320x3 - 640x1 - 640x2
Set display option above.
Click on image to enlarge.
Diodon holocanthus
© Copyright Roger Steene, 2006 · 0
Diodon holocanthus
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • dark bar through eye
  • body - blotches
  • fins - no spots
  • snout spines greater than body spines
  • tail base: without spines
Dorsal rays 13-15; anal rays 13-14; pectoral rays 22-25; long erectile spines on head and body; 12-16 spines in an approximate row from top of snout to dorsal fin; anterior middle spines on top of head longer than longest spines posterior to pectoral fins; no spines on tail base; a pair of small barbels on chin.

Light olive to pale brown, shading to white ventrally with small black spots on upper two-thirds of head and body; a brown bar from above to below eye; a broad brown bar across occipital region and another across middle of back; a large oval brown blotch above each pectoral fin and another around dorsal-fin base; fins plain.

Size: attains 50 cm.

Inhabits reefs and open sand-rubble bottoms.

Depth: 1-100 m.

Circumtropical distribution; southern California to the Gulf of California to northern Peru and all the offshore islands.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 100 m.
Depth Range Min: 1 m.
Diet: sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-7; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=40; Longitudinal range=40.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Corals; Estuary; Mud; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Sand & gravel; Rocks; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef and soft bottom.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 50 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Marine.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Aburto-Oropeza , O. and Balart, E. F., 2001., Community structure of reef fish in several habitats of a rocky reef in the Gulf of California., Marine Ecology, 22:283-305.
  • Acosta Salmón , H. and Martínez Fernández, E., 2000., Propuesta preliminar ... de concha nacar (Pteria sterna Gould, 1851) en la Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, México. En Aburto Oropeza, O. y C. A. Sánchez Ortiz (Eds.). Recursos arrecifales del Golfo de California, …., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:95-106.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1997., An Annotated Checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, Tropical Eastern Pacific., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 45:813-843.
  • Amezcua-Linares, F., 1996., Peces demersales de la plataforma continenta del Pacífico Central de Mexico., Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM:184.
  • Breder, C.M. Jr., 1936., Scientific results of the second oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1926. Heterosomata to Pediculati from Panama to Lower California., Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Collect. Yale Univ., 2(3):1-56.
  • Briggs, J.C., 1960., Fishes of worldwide (circumtropical) distribution., Copeia, 1960:171-180.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre , J. L. and Balart, E. F., 1997., Contribución al conocimiento de la ictiofauna de fondos blandos y someros de la Ensenada de La Paz y Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:139-150.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Chirichigno, N., 1998., Clave para identificar los peces marinos del Peru., Instituto del Mar del Peru, Informe., 44(2 Ed.):1-387.
  • De la Cruz , J. , Galvan , F. , Abitia , L. A. , Rodriguez , J. and Gutierrez, F. J., 1994., Lista sistematica de los peces marinos de Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico). Systematic List of marine fishes from Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico)., Ciencias Marinas, 20:17-31.
  • De la Cruz Agüero, J., 1997., Catálogo de los peces Marinos de Baja California Sur., Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas:341.
  • Edgar, G.J. Banks, S., Fariña, J.M., Calvopiña, M. and Martínez, C., 2004., Regional biogeography of shallow reef fish and macro-invertebrate communities in the Galapagos archipelago., Journal of Biogeography, 31:1107-1124.
  • Elorduy Garay , J. F. and Jiménez Gutiérrez, S. V., 2000., Metodologías para el estudio de los peces de arrecife. En Aburto Oropeza, O. y C. A. Sánchez Ortiz (Eds.). Recursos arrecifales del Golfo de California, estrategias de manejo para las especies marinas de ornato., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:72-82.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Garrison, G., 2000., Peces de la Isla del Coco., Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad:393.
  • Gotshall, D.W., 1996., Fishes of Rocas Alijos. In Rocas Alijos. Ed. R. W. Schmieder. Cornell Expeditions., Kluwer Academic Publishers: 347-354.
  • Grove , J.S. and Lavenberg, R. J., 1997., The fishes of the Galápagos islands., Stanford University Press:863 pp.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Kendall , W.C. and Radcliffe, L., 1912., The shore fishes. Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the eastern tropical Pacific, ... by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer ALBATROSS, from October, 1904, to March, 1905, Lieut. Commander L.M. Garret, U.S.N., Commanding. XXV., Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 35(3):75-171.
  • Lea, R.N. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 2000., Observations on fishes associated with the 1997-1998 El Niño off California., CalCOFL Rep., 41:117-129.
  • Leis, J. M., 1978., Systematics and zoogeography of the porcupinefishes (Diodon, Diodontidae, Tetraodontiformes), with comments on egg and larval development., United States Fish Wildlife Service, Fisheries Bulletin, 76:535-567.
  • Linnaeus, C., 1758., Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae., Systema Nat. ed. 10, 1:1-824.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1928., The marine fishes of Panama. Part III., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:709-1045.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Robertson , D.R. and Allen, G.A., 1996., Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll., Coral Reefs, 15:121-131.
  • Rodríguez-Romero, J., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sanchez, F.J., Aguilar-Palomino, B., Arvizú-Martínez, J., 1998., Ecology of fish communities from the soft bottoms of Bahía Concepción, México., Arch. Fish. Mar. Res., 46:61-76.
  • Rosenblatt , R.H. , McCosker , J.E. and Rubinoff, I., 1972., Indo-west Pacific fishes from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama., Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 234:18pp.
  • Rubio , E.E. , Gutierrez , B. and Frank, R., 1987., Pesces de la Isla Gorgona., Centro de Publicaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia., (1-315):1-315.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Sánchez Ortíz , C. , Arreola Robles , J. L. , Aburto Oropeza , O. and Cortés Hernández, M., 1997., Peces de arrecife en la región de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:189-200.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Vega, A.J., Villareal, N., 2003., Peces asociados a arrecifes y manglares en el Parque Nacional Coiba., Tecnociencia, 5:65-76.
  • Villareal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O., 2000., Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía., Rev. Biol. Trop., 48:413-424.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


Supported by
go to Discover Life's Facebook group

Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
   Top | See original

http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/47d3bff0-5df7-41d9-b682-913428aed5f0 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/47d3bff0-5df7-41d9-b682-913428aed5f0
&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 404 Not Found https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/47d3bff0-5df7-41d9-b682-913428aed5f0

Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
   Top | See original

 
Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Tetraodontiformes  
 Family Diodontidae  
 Genus Diodon  
  Diodon holocanthus    Linnaeus, 1758 
Provider: Wu, Kao Yi 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Atopomycterus bocagei Diodon holacanthus Diodon hystrix holocanthus Diodon maculifer Diodon multimaculatus Diodon novemaculatus Diodon novemmaculatus Diodon paraholocanthus Diodon pilosus Diodon quadrimaculatus Diodon sexmaculatus details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 福建魚類誌(朱等, 1985); 中國動物誌-魨形目(蘇等, 2002)
Name Code: 382979
  IUCN Red List:LC      
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan    FishBase    Discover Life    World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)  
User Response:   upload Comments    upload Photo
 
Previous Page       Home Page

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Diodon+holocanthus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Diodon+holocanthus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 12
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Diodon holocanthus%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Diodon holocanthus
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0804 0008 0065 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Diodon holocanthus
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0804 0008 0066 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Diodon holocanthus
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0804 0008 0067 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Diodon holocanthus
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0804 0008 0068 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Diodon holocanthus
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0904 0013 0053 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Diodon holocanthus
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0904 0013 0054 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Diodon holocanthus
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0904 0024 0055 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Diodon holocanthus
Diodon holocanthus
Balloonfish
ID: 0000 0000 1105 1391 [detail]
© 2005 John White

Diodon holocanthus
Diodon holocanthus
Balloonfish
ID: 0000 0000 1105 1392 [detail]
© 2005 John White

Diodon holocanthus
Diodon holocanthus
Porcupine Fish
ID: 0000 0000 1206 1049 [detail]
© 2006 John White

Diodon holocanthus
Diodon holocanthus
Balloonfish
ID: 0000 0000 1206 1117 [detail]
© 2006 John White

Diodon holocanthus
Diodon holocanthus
Spiny Puffer
ID: 0000 0000 0110 3444 [detail]
© 2010 Richard Lang

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2019 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from FishBase
   Top | See original

http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Diodon&speciesname=holocanthus ---> https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Diodon&speciesname=holocanthus
https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Diodon&speciesname=holocanthus ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Diodon-holocanthus.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus , 1758

Longspined porcupinefish Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Year 2100
Reviewed map
Diodon holocanthus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Videos     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Diodon holocanthus (Longspined porcupinefish) Diodon holocanthus
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes (Puffers and filefishes) > Diodontidae (Porcupinefishes (burrfishes))
Etymology: Diodon: Greek, di = two + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 200 m (Ref. 5951 ), usually 2 - 35 m (Ref. 40849 ).   Subtropical; 37°N - 39°S, 8°E - 55°W (Ref. 55210 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Circumtropical in distribution. Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951 ), Florida, USA and the Bahamas to Brazil (Ref. 7251 ). Eastern Atlantic: 30°N to 23°S (Ref. 6951 ); also South Africa (Ref. 4423 ). Western Indian Ocean: southern Red Sea to Madagascar, Reunion and Mauritius (Ref. 53568 ). Pacific Ocean: southern Japan south to Lord Howe Island and east to the Hawaiian and Easter islands (Ref. 37816 ). Also from southern California, USA to Colombia (Ref. 11482 ) and the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 5227 ).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251 ); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-15; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 13 - 15. Pelagic juveniles with spots, particularly prominent on belly; adults with dark blotches across back and spots between the blotches; fins without spots (Ref. 4423 ). 14 to 16 spines in an approximate row between snout and origin of dorsal fin; with a large brown bar above and below each eye; a broad transverse brown bar on occipital region of head (Ref. 13442 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit shallow reefs to open, soft bottoms. Also in areas with rocky substrata. Sometimes form groups (Ref. 9710 , 48637 ). Occur on open muddy substrates as well as on rich soft-bottom and coral reefs. Juveniles often with floating Sargassum rafts. Young and sub-adults may form small groups (Ref. 48637 ). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302 ). Juveniles pelagic to about 6-9 cm. Solitary. Feed on mollusks, sea urchins, hermit crabs, and crabs at night (Ref. 9680 ). Relatively poor swimmers (Ref. 9710 ). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166 ). Captured at the surface using a hand net (Ref. 26165 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Leis, J.M. , 1984. Diodontidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3393 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 07 June 2011

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303 )




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Bio-Quiz | E-book | Field guide | Identification keys | Length-frequency wizard | Life-history tool | Point map | Classification Tree | Catch-MSY |

Special reports

Check for Aquarium maintenance | Check for Species Fact Sheets | Check for Aquaculture Fact Sheets

Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 21.5 - 29, mean 27.3 (based on 2666 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5313   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.04365 (0.02218 - 0.08590), b=2.87 (2.69 - 3.05), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.9   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Unknown .

Entered by Binohlan, Crispina B. Modified by Sampang-Reyes, Arlene G. Fish Forum
Comments & Corrections
Sign our Guest Book Back to Search Random Species Back to Top
Accessed through: Not available FishBase mirror site : Stockholm, Sweden Page last modified by : mrius-barile - 20 July 2016
Total processing time for the page : 1.2165 seconds

Updated: 2019-09-20 09:43:59 gmt
Discover Life | Top
© Designed by The Polistes Corporation