Reprinted from: Snelling, R. 1970. STUDIES ON NORTH AMERICAN BEES OF THE GENUS
HYLAEUS. 5. THE SUBGENERA HYLAEUS. S. STR. AND
PARAPROSOPIS (HYMENOPTERA: COLLETIDAE) Contributions in Science, No. 180.|
This species extends transcontinentally from southern Canada to northern
Mexico. Over most of this range H. cressoni is a common species. The
populations from eastern, northern and montane regions commonly have the
clypeus and pronotal collars immaculate. Some individuals within these populations
may also lack maculae on the pronotal lobes and the tegulae. Clinal
variation occurs uniformly from east to west, from north to south and with
decreasing elevation. This elinal variation is manifested in two concordant
characters, an increase in the tone and extent of the pale maculae and a decrease
in the size and density of metasomal punctation, so that populations at
opposite poles of the eline are very different in appearance. Specimens from Turlock, California, for example have the face marks bright yellowish, the
apical portion of the c1ypeus is strongly infused with reddish color and the
pronotal lobes and collar and the tegulae are conspicuously maculate. The
abdomen is smooth and shiny, with few or no distinct punctures. Such specimens
contrast sharply with others from the New England area in which the
maculae are dull yellowish-white, the c1ypeus is black and the thorax completely
immaculate; such specimens may have the metasomal tergites with
obvious fine scattered punctures. The same is true if one compares the Turlock
specimens with samples from Revelstoke, British Columbia, or with others
from Sonora Pass in the Sierra Nevada of California. In all cases the two
extremes are connected, through the intervening portions of the range, by a
series of specimens of intermediate character. These series of intermediates
form, in their entirety, a well-defined cline for the characters noted.
Under these cricumstances continued recognition of H. pasadenae, described
from Pasadena, California, as a subspecies of H. cresson;, a status
accorded this form in the past, is untenable. This bee does not possess any of
the characteristics of a definable subspecies and I agree with Metz in placing
H. pasadenae in the synonymy of H. cressoni. The subsequent continued
recognition of H. pasadenae as a subspecies of H. cressoni seems to be traceable
to Cockerell's refusal to accept the synonymy published by Metz. However
persistent such a refusal has been, there appears to be no published
indication why Metz's proposal should not be adopted.
Lovell's H. teleporus was proposed for H. cressoni-like males in which
the lateral face marks terminate acutely at the level of the lower margin of the
antennal sockets. These males seem to occur sporadically within the populations
of H. cressoll; in northern and montane areas. I have examined the
terminalia of males of this form and find no distinctive characters which will
serve to separate H. teleporus from H. cresson;. I believe that H. teleporus
should be placed in the synonymy of H. cressoni until conclusive evidence for
the specificity of this form can be advanced.
Cockerell and Sumner described H. repolitlls from a single female taken
at Ogden, Utah. Dr. Rozen sent the type to me and I find nothing in any of its
characters to justify separating this bee from H. cressoni. The nearly smooth
basal zone of thc propodcum is exactly like that of many females of H. cressoni
available to me which also show a strong reduction in the longitudinal rugulae
of the basal zone. This characteristic cannot be correlated with other features
nor is it geographically consistent.
Dr. Rozen has sent the type of H. laciniallls, and there is no doubt that
this name, too, is a synonym of H. cressoni cressoni. Before I had the opportunity
to study thc type, I was puzzled by the peculiar shape fa the seventh ventrite
as figured by Cockerell and Sumner (1930: 10, fig. 2). With the type
slide before me, it is clear that the apical lobes of this ventrite have been
broken off. The poor preparation of the slide, on which everything is badly flattened and distorted, is also responsible for the seemingly expanded gonocoxites,
as these were illustrated by Cockerell and Sumner.
Cockerell and Sumner cite the type as follows:
"COLORADO-Boulder, May 24, 1913 (F. E. Lutz)." The labels on the
specimens clearly read "Boulder, Colo., M. D. Ellis, May 24, 1913," and
"Salix." Since the specimen and slides are in accord with the original description
and figures, and the type is so marked in Cockerell's handwriting, I have
no reason to doubt that this is the true type.
Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1960 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 141.
FEMALE—Length 4 mm.; black; antennae piceous above, testaceous beneath; face marks yellow, triangular, terminated acutely on eye margin slightly above level of antennae; tuberdes yellow; tegulae piceous, with an anterior yellowish spot. wings subhyaline veins and
stigma brownish; collar entirely black; basal two-thirds of outer face of front tibiae yellow, mid tibiae with a very small, basal, yellow spot, basal third of hind tibiae yellow, spurs pale yellow, legs otherwise dark; face rather narrow below; facial foveae deep and distinct, narrowly linear, separated from eye by a slightly wider space, only very slightly divergent from eye above; basal segment of flagellum about as long as broad, slightly shorter than pedicel, 2nd segment shorter, slightly broader than long; cheeks and eyes of about equal width in lateral view; front coxae not at all angulate; dorsal area of propodeum quite extensive, longer than metanotum, coarsely striate; punctures of face below antennae sparse and very shallow and obscure, very close and fine above antennae, becoming obscure on cheeks and vertex; deep and distinct on scutum and scutellum, interspaces about equal to diameter of punctures; pleura dull, densely tessellate, punctures very shallow, sparse and obscure; punctures of abdomen very minute, more distinct on shining basal segment, closer and more obscure on following segments.
MALE—Length 3.5-4.0 mm.; black; antennae brownish-piceous, scape blnck, maculated anteriorly; collar black; tegulae piceous; wings subhyaline, veins and stigma brownish; mandibles and labrum black; maculations orange- yellow as follows: anterior line on scape, entire face below antennae, face marks, continued above antennae as narrow rounded lobes separated from eye margin and partially surrounding antennal fossa, tubercles, front tibiae except posterior face, base and apex of mid tibiae, basal third and apical rim of hind tibiae, all the tarsi and spurs; face narrow and elongate; cheeks narrower than eyes in lateral view; basal segment of flagellum short, broader than long, following segments about as broad as long; thoracic punctures rather fine, but deep and distinct, interspaces on scutum and scutellum about equal to diameter of punctures, slightly more sparse on pleura; dorsal area of propodeum slightly longer than metanotum medially, coarsely rugoso-striate; abdominal punctures very fine, sparse medially on shining basal segment, closer but more obscure on following segments.
DISTRIBUTION—Southeastern Canada and the New England states, west to Minnesota, southward to Georgia; May to October.
FLOWER RECORDS—Being in flight throughout the warmer parts of the year, cressoni visits a wide range of plants, collections having been made on species of the following genera: Anethum, Apocynum, Castanea, Ceanothus, Crataegus, Daucus, Erigeron, Evonymus, Hydrangea, Melilotus, Pyracantha, Rhus, Rubus and Solidago. It has also been collected on the following crop plants: apple, celery, cowpea, dill, mustard and parsnip. Robertson (1929) has recorded it from the following plants: Amorpha, Aruncus, Aster, Blephilia, Boltonia, Cacalia, Cctpsella, Cardamine, Cerastium, Cicuta, Cornus, Crypt at cienia, Eryngium, Eulophus, Eupatorium, Euphorbia, FragarIa, Galeum, Geum, Heracleum, Krigia, Lepidium, Lyco pus, Malva, Osmorrhiza, Oxypohs, Part henium, Pastinaca, Polygonum, Polytaenia, Potentihla, Prunus, Pycnanthemum, Sahix, Sanicula, Sium, Taenidia, Thaspium, Vaherianehha, Veronica, Viburnum and Zizia.
The clypeus in females of cressoni is subject to some variation in that it is maculated in some individuals, the central yellow blotch being quite conspicuous in some specimens, barely evident in others.
Mitchell (1960) - The clypeus in females of H. mesillae is subject to some variation in that it is maculated in some individuals, the central yellow blotch being quite conspicuous in some specimens, and barely evident in others.
Synonamous name : Hylaeus teleporus
FEMALE—Length 4.0-4.5 mm.; black; antennae piceous above, testaceous beneath; face marks yellow, narrow and elongate, not entirely filling area between clypeus and eyes, terminated acutely on eye margin slightly above level of antennae; tubercles yellow; tegulae brownish-fuscous, not maculated; wings subhyaline, veins and stigma brownishferruginous; collar entirely black; basal half of outer face of front tibiae yellow; mid tibiae with a very small basal yellow spot; spurs and basal third of hind tibiae yellow, legs otherwise dark; face narrowed below; facial foveae deep and distinct, linear, separated from eyes by about an equal space, very slightly divergent from eyes above; basal segment of flagellum about as long as broad, shorter than pedicel, 2nd and 3rd segments broader than long, the following with length and breadth subequal; cheeks slightly narrower than eyes in lateral view; front coxae simple; dorsal area of propodeum sloping, slightly longer than metanotum, rather coarsely striate; face below antennae tessellate, sparsely, shallowly and obscurely punctate, punctures deep, distinct and close above antennae, these shallow and obscure on cheeks and vertex; punctures deep, distinct, close and rather fine on scutum, those on scutellum more coarse and slightly more widely separated; pleura dull, punctures rather shallow and indistinct; 1st and 2nd segments of abdomen somewhat shining, deeply, distinctly, rather sparsely and minutely punctate, punctures on following segments becoming obscure.
MALE—Length 3.5-4.0 mm.; black, including mandibles, labrum and collar; antennae piceous above, ferruginous beneath; scape black, sometimes with a small yellow maculation anteriorly; tegulae brownish-ferruginous; wings subhyaline, veins and stigma brownishferruginous; entire face below antennae yellow; supraclypeal mark long, pointed between antennae; lateral face marks abruptly truncate at level of antennae, each with a short narrow extension bordering outer side of antennal fossa, widely removed from eye, rounded above, little if any clavate; tubercles yellow; front tibiae reddish-yellow, posterior face ferruginous; mid tibiae yellow; mid and hind basitarsi and spurs pale yellow, other tarsal segments more ferruginous; face narrowed below; cheeks slightly narrower than eyes in lateral view; face with a shining shallow depression on each side between upper extension of face marks and eyes; scape rather slender, diameter at apex only slightly greater than that of pedicel; 1st and 2nd segments of flagellum nearly twice as broad as long, 3rd and following segments with length and breadth about equal; front coxae simple; dorsal area of propodeum slightly longer than metanotum, rather coarsely reticulate, posterior face truncate, very finely rugoso-punctate, subcarinate laterally, lateral faces somewhat shining, closely and finely but shallowly and obscurely punctate; metanotum dull, closely, finely and obscurely punctate; punctures of scutum deep and distinct, fine and rather close, not crowded; those of scutellum slightly more coarse and sparse; pleural punctures rather coarse, well separated, surface between somewhat shining, obscurely tessellate; basal segment of abdomen distinctly and quite deeply punctate, punctures fine but not minute, rather close in general, those on following segments becoming minute and obscure.
DISTRIBUTION—The type locality is
Southern Pines, North Carolina. Specimens
have been identified also from New Jersey,
Indiana, Michigan, Virginia and Ontario.
It is in flight iii the South from April to
FLOWER RECORDS—Rubus and Salvia