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Neodiprion lecontei, Redheaded pine sawfly, larvae
© John Pickering, 2004-2017 · 2
Neodiprion lecontei, Redheaded pine sawfly, larvae
Megachile mendica, Flat-tailed Leafcutter
© Copyright John Ascher, 2006-2014 · 6
Megachile mendica, Flat-tailed Leafcutter

Polybia occidentalis
© John Pickering, 2004-2017 · 1
Polybia occidentalis
Pseudomyrmex apache, worker
© Alex Wild, myrmecos.net, 2004 · 30
Pseudomyrmex apache, worker
The insect order Hymenoptera includes the ants, bees, wasps, and sawflies. Based on Stork's (1988) sampling of canopy trees in Borneo, tropical Hymenoptera, excluding ants, rival beetles as the most speciose insect order. In most faunas , they constitute about 20% of insect species. About 80% of Hymenoptera species are parasitoids, developing in or on a single host or single egg mass. The parasitic Hymenoptera are important in terms of species richness, ecological impact, and economic importance (LaSalle & Gauld, 1991; Gauld & Bolton, 1988; Waage & Greathead, 1986). Of an estimated 2.6 to 30 million insect species, LaSalle & Gauld (1991) estimate that there are between 170,000 and 6 million parasitic Hymenoptera, of which only 50,000 are described. They attack a wide range of hosts. Parasitic Hymenoptera are often a dominant factor regulating arthropod populations, and hence, significant components of most ecosystems. Some control economic pests and have been used successfully in biological control programs (Greathead, 1986). Diet breadth ranges from specialists attacking only one species to generalists attacking a broad range of hosts. Relatively little is known about the community structure, geographic range, environmental requirements, host specificity, and behavior of most species, particularly of tropical ones.


  • SYMPHYTA - sawflies & horntails
  • APOCRITA - ants, bees, & wasps

Geographic distribution

Links to other sites

  • Gauld, Ian D. and Barry Bolton (Eds.) 1988. The Hymenoptera. British Museum (Natural History). Oxford Univeristy Press, New York. ISBN 0-19-858521-7.

Thanks to Cassie Lloyd, Sabina Gupta, and Denise Lim for support in developing this page.

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Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Apiaceae  Daucus carota @ PN- (5)
Asteraceae  Achillea millefolium @ PN- (1)

Conyza canadensis @ PN- (1)

Erigeron annuus @ PN- (1)
Convolvulaceae  Convolvulus arvensis @ PN- (2)
Fabaceae  Lotus corniculatus @ PN- (1)

Trifolium pratense @ PN- (1)

Trifolium repens @ PN- (1)
Plantaginaceae  Plantago major @ PN- (1)

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Following modified from Insect Collection, University of Guelph
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(Greek, hymen = membrane; pteron = wing)
Common Names: sawflies, wasps, bees, ants
Distribution: Cosmopolitan
Suborders: Symphyta and Apocrita

Most Hymenoptera are easily recognised as belonging to the order because of their "wasp waists". The constricted waist (actually a constriction in the front part of the abdomen) characterizes ants, wasps, parasitic and bees in the suborder Apocrita. They vary from minute parasitoids of other insect eggs up to huge wasps and bees, but all have the wasp waist. There is one other suborder of Hymenoptera, the Symphyta, in which the wasp waist is absent. Symphyta, including the sawflies and  wood wasps shown here are generally shining, hard bodied insects with transparent wings.

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Updated: 2019-05-23 15:36:59 gmt
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