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Lilium occidentale Purdy
WESTERN LILY
Eureka Lily

Life   Plantae   Monocotyledoneae   Liliaceae   Lilium


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Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LIOC2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LIOC2
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LIOC2 ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=LIOC2
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=LIOC2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=LIOC2
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Lilium occidentale Purdy
western lily

Image of Lilium occidentale

General Information
Symbol: LIOC2
Group: Monocot
Family: Liliaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Forb/herb
Native Status : L48   N
Data Source and Documentation
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green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Lilium thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Brother Alfred Brousseau. Provided by St. Mary's College of California . ©St. Mary's College of California. Usage Requirements .

Brother Alfred Brousseau. Provided by St. Mary's College of California . ©St. Mary's College of California. Usage Requirements .

Brother Alfred Brousseau. Provided by St. Mary's College of California . ©St. Mary's College of California. Usage Requirements .

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Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Liliopsida – Monocotyledons
Subclass Liliidae
Order Liliales
Family Liliaceae – Lily family
Genus Lilium L. – lily
Species Lilium occidentale Purdy – western lily

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
United States : western lily Endangered
California western lily Endangered
Oregon western lily Endangered

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast FACW

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (LIOC2)
CalPhotos (LIOC2)
Flora of North America (LIOC2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (LIOC2)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (LIOC2)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (LIOC2)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (LIOC2)
The Center for Plant Conservation (LIOC2)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA Vol. 26 Page 177, 184, 185, 186 , 187 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 26 | Liliaceae | Lilium

10. Lilium occidentale Purdy, Erythea. 5: 103. 1897.

Western lily, Eureka lily

Bulbs rhizomatous, sometimes irregular, unbranched, continuously scaly, 1.8—4.3 × 2.1—9.9 cm, 0.3—0.7 times taller than long; scales 1—2(—3)-segmented, longest 0.9—2.5 cm; stem roots absent. Stems to 2.2 m. Buds rounded in cross section. Leaves scattered or in 1—9 whorls or partial whorls, 3—19 leaves per whorl, horizontal and drooping at tips to ascending, 4.1—26.3 × 0.4—3 cm, 4—29 times longer than wide; blade elliptic to linear, occasionally narrowly lanceolate, sometimes narrowly or weakly oblanceolate, margins not undulate, apex narrowly acute; veins and margins ± smooth abaxially. Inflorescences racemose, 1—35-flowered. Flowers pendent, not fragrant; perianth Turk's-cap-shaped; sepals and petals reflexed 2/5 along length from base, yellow, greenish yellow, or green proximally (and usually forming a green star), sometimes with an intercalary band of orange or yellow, then red-orange to red to maroon or very rarely orange on distal 1/2—2/3, maroon, dark purple, or rarely blackish spots concentrated proximally and rarely extending into distal reddish zone, conspicuously green abaxially on proximal 2/5—1/2, not distinctly clawed; sepals not ridged abaxially, 4.4—8.1 × 0.8—1.8 cm; petals 4.3—8 × 0.8—1.6 cm; stamens moderately exserted; filaments ± parallel to style, barely spreading, diverging 4°—12° from axis; anthers dull red, dull purple, or magenta, 0.5—1.4 cm; pollen rust or red-orange, occasionally orange or orange-brown to red-brown; pistil 3—5.5 cm; ovary 1—2 cm; style green, sometimes purple distally; pedicel 5—29.7 cm. Capsules 2.1—5.4 × 1—1.9 cm, 1.4—3.1 times longer than wide. Seeds 141—207. 2n = 24.

Flowering summer (Jun--Aug). Coastal scrub, coastal prairies, gaps in coastal coniferous forests especially with Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bongard) Carrière], Sphag-num bogs and marshes in northern part of range; of conservation concern; 0--100 m; Calif., Oreg.

In the late nineteenth century, botanist and bulb merchant Carl Purdy employed Native Americans to collect bulbs of lilies and other desirable plants in the area around Eureka, California, and Lilium occidentale was among the species he was brought. After Purdy described Lilium occidentale in 1897, the plant came into great demand. He later (C. Purdy 1937) lamented that almost no plants were available for cultivation. Populations fluctuated in the middle of the twentieth century and frequently declined dramatically from overcollecting following publicity that the plants had recovered and flowered. Much habitat was subsequently lost to ecological succession and land conversion. Fortunately, several large populations have recently been discovered near Crescent City, California, and completion of a recovery plan (Fish and Wildlife Service 1998) bodes well for the future of this state and federally protected plant.

Lilium occidentale occurs in scattered populations from Humboldt Bay, California, to Coos Bay, Oregon, always within six kilometers of the ocean. Plants near Humboldt Bay occur in coastal prairies and scrub, whereas many Oregon populations are found in sphagnum bogs. Typical Oregon and extreme northern California plants in the vicinity of Crescent City (Del Norte County) have an irregular bulb that occasionally is nearly erect (0.3—0.7 times taller than long versus 0.3—0.5 in Humboldt Bay plants). In northern plants the leaves are often scattered—though they are whorled in larger plants—and extremely long and thin [4.2—26.3 × 0.4—2.7 cm (4.6—28.6 times longer than wide) versus blade 4.1—18.9 × 0.7—3 cm (4—17.4 times longer than wide)] in Humboldt Bay plants. Flowers of Oregon plants are marginally smaller, have somewhat narrower sepals (4.4—7.6 × 0.8—1.5 cm) than Humboldt Bay plants (4.4—8.1 × 1—1.8 cm), and typically appear somewhat later. These differences have provoked discussion about the merits of subdividing this species, but many of the differences appear to be related to habitat rather than genotype. For example, plants from Shores Acres State Park in Coos County, Oregon, occur in a coastal bluff setting that is similar to habitats near Humboldt Bay, and these lilies share many of the same vegetative and floral characteristics of Humboldt Bay plants. Subspecific differentiation appears to be unwarranted. Lilium occidentale is distinguished from similar species such as L. pardalinum by the closely parallel stamens and adaxial green star formed by the conspicuously green sepal and petal bases, a characteristic also discernible in the abaxial surface of the buds. This green star is present in nearly all flowers when first opened, but changes to yellow or yellow-orange as the flowers age. The green star of certain eastern taxa (e.g., L. superbum) is also diagnostic for them but is primarily formed by glossy green adaxial nectaries and is not so prominent in bud. Frequent hybrids with Lilium columbianum in Oregon occur primarily where human disturbance has introduced that species into boggy areas via drier open pathways such as powerline right of ways and roads. With the likely exception of Lilium canadense, L. occidentale is the only North American pendent lily that is pollinated almost exclusively by hummingbirds (in California primarily the Allen's hummingbird [Selasphorus sassin (Lesson), family Trochilidae]). Its pendent red flower is transitional between butterfly-pollinated forms like L. pardalinum and the classical bird-adapted flowers of L. maritimum and L. bolanderi that are more tubular and horizontal. The Karok ate Lilium occidentale bulbs after baking them in an earth oven (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Lilium+occidentale&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Lilium+occidentale&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 31
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Lilium occidentale%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0042 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0038 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 0000 0000 0810 1357 [detail]
© 2010 Dana York

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0047 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0034 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0053 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0045 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0052 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0039 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0043 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0049 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0035 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0044 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0041 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0037 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0046 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0048 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0036 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0033 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0054 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 0000 0000 1101 0348 [detail]
© 2000 John Game

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0040 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0050 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Lilium occidentale
Lilium occidentale
Western Lily
ID: 6105 1651 0977 0051 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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