D I S C O V E R    L I F E   
Bee Hunt! Odonata Lepidoptera 
  HomeAll Living ThingsIDnature guidesGlobal mapperAlbumsLabelsSearch
  AboutNewsEventsResearchEducationProjectsStudy sitesHelp


Rhinoptera steindachneri Evermann and Jenkins, 1891
PACIFIC COWNOSE RAY
Golden Cownose Ray; Hawk ray

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Myliobatidae   Rhinoptera

Rhinoptera steindachneri
www.fao.org Copyright Michel Lamboeuf · 0
Rhinoptera steindachneri

Click on map for details about points.

Links

    We parsed the following live from the Web into this page. Such content is managed by its original site and not cached on Discover Life. Please send feedback and corrections directly to the source. See original regarding copyrights and terms of use.
  • CalPhotos
  • FishBase

80x5 - 240x3 - 240x4 - 320x1 - 320x2 - 320x3 - 640x1 - 640x2
Set display option above.
Click on images to enlarge.
Rhinoptera steindachneri
© Copyright Roger Steene, 2006 · 0
Rhinoptera steindachneri
Rhinoptera steindachneri
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Rhinoptera steindachneri

Rhinoptera steindachneri
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Rhinoptera steindachneri
Rhinoptera steindachneri
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Rhinoptera steindachneri
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • disc rhomboidal, width greater than length
  • golden brown
  • tail slender, + spines
  • head large, square, flaps and notch at front
Golden cownose-ray, Pacific cownose-ray, Hawkray

A diamond-shaped ray with head distinctly protruding from disc; head with "wings" along side and front; teeth in 6-9 plates in top and bottom; width of disc about 1.7-1.8 times its length; tail with 1-2 serrated spines, their length about 2.5 times eye width; tail very slender, about 1.2-1.6 times length of disc; skin smooth.

Overall pale yellowish brown, white on ventral surface; tail blackish.

Grows to about 104 cm disc width.

Inhabits coastal lagoons, often forms large schools in mangrove areas.

Depth: to 30 m.

Central Baja and the Gulf of California to Peru, the Galapagos and Malpelo.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ); North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California).
Depth Range Max: 30 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=32; Southern limit=-6; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=38; Longitudinal range=37.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva; No pelagic phase.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Beach; Estuary; Mud; Sand & gravel; Soft bottom only; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove).
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 104 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); TEP endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Marine.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Mid Water; Near Bottom; Near Surface; Surface; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Acero , A. and Franke, R., 1995., Nuevos registros de peces cartilaginosos del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona (Pacifico Colombiano), II. Rayas y Descripcion de una Nueva Especie., Bibl. J. J. Triana, 11:9-21.
  • Acero, A. and Franke, R., 2001., Peces del parque nacional natural Gorgona. En: Barrios, L. M. y M. Lopéz-Victoria (Eds.). Gorgona marina: Contribución al conocimiento de una isla única., INVEMAR, Serie Publicaciones Especiales No. 7:123-131.
  • Beebe , W. and Tee-Van, J., 1941., Eastern Pacific expeditions of the New York Zoological Society. XXVIII. Fishes from the tropical eastern Pacific. (From Cedros Island, Lower California, South to the Galápagos Islands and northern Peru.) Part 3. Rays, mantas and chimaeras., Zoologica, 26(3):245-280.
  • Breder, C.M. Jr., 1928., Scientific results of the second oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1926. Elasmobranchii from Panama to Lower California., Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Collect. Yale Univ., 2(1):1-13.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • De la Cruz , J. , Galvan , F. , Abitia , L. A. , Rodriguez , J. and Gutierrez, F. J., 1994., Lista sistematica de los peces marinos de Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico). Systematic List of marine fishes from Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico)., Ciencias Marinas, 20:17-31.
  • Evermann , B.W. and Jenkins, O.P., 1891., Report upon a collection of fishes made at Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, with descriptions of new species., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 14:121-165.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1916., Cold-Blooded Vertebrates from Costa Rica and the Canal Zone., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 68:389-414.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1896., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part I., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1-1240.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Minckley, W.L., 2002., Fishes of the lowermost colorado river, its delta, and estuary: a commentary on biotic change. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:63-78.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


Supported by
go to Discover Life's Facebook group

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Rhinoptera+steindachneri&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Rhinoptera+steindachneri&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 2
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Rhinoptera steindachneri%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Rhinoptera steindachneri
Rhinoptera steindachneri
Golden Cownose Ray
ID: 1338 3161 0663 0009 [detail]
Glenn and Martha Vargas
© 2004 California Academy of Sciences

Rhinoptera steindachneri
Rhinoptera steindachneri
Golden Cow-nosed Rays
ID: 0000 0000 0413 4291 [detail]
© 2013 Simon J. Tonge

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2019 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from FishBase
   Top | See original

http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Rhinoptera&speciesname=steindachneri ---> https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Rhinoptera&speciesname=steindachneri
https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Rhinoptera&speciesname=steindachneri ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Rhinoptera-steindachneri.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Rhinoptera steindachneri Evermann & Jenkins , 1891

Pacific cownose ray Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Year 2100
Reviewed map
Rhinoptera steindachneri   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Google image Image of Rhinoptera steindachneri (Pacific cownose ray) Rhinoptera steindachneri
Picture by Béarez, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Myliobatidae (Eagle and manta rays) > Rhinopterinae
Etymology: Rhinoptera: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek,pteron = fin, wing (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on authors: Evermann & Jenkins .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 65 m (Ref. 117244 ), usually 0 - 25 m.   Tropical; 32°N - 5°S, 117°W - 76°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Costa Rica and the Galapagos Islands. Probably occurring elsewhere.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 70.0 , range 65 - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 28023 )

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found over soft bottoms, near rocky or coral reefs; also near reef drop-offs (Ref. 12951 ). Occasionally near the surface and may jump out of the water. Often in schools, sometimes associated with Aetobatus narinari , the spotted eagle ray (Ref. 12951 ). Feeds on benthic crustaceans and mollusks. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

McEachran, J.D. and G. Notarbartolo di Sciara , 1995. Rhinopteridae. Gavilanes. p. 782-783. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para los Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9263 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Near Threatened (NT)  ; Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

E-book | Field guide | Length-frequency wizard | Life-history tool | Point map | Classification Tree | Catch-MSY |

Special reports

Check for Aquarium maintenance | Check for Species Fact Sheets | Check for Aquaculture Fact Sheets

Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 19.7 - 29.1, mean 24.2 (based on 266 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00463 - 0.02844), b=2.98 (2.76 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.6   ±0.50 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .

Entered by Froese, Rainer Modified by Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen Fish Forum
Comments & Corrections
Sign our Guest Book Back to Search Random Species Back to Top
Accessed through: Not available FishBase mirror site : Stockholm, Sweden Page last modified by : mrius-barile - 20 July 2016
Total processing time for the page : 0.5912 seconds

Updated: 2019-11-16 23:55:43 gmt
Discover Life | Top
© Designed by The Polistes Corporation