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Salix alba L.
WHITE WILLOW
Salix alba subsp caerulea (Sm) Rech f; Salix alba subsp vitellina (L) Arcang; Salix alba var caerulea (Sm) Dumort; Salix alba var vitellina (L) Stokes; European

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Salicaceae   Salix

Salix alba, White Willow
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Salix alba, White Willow

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Salix alba
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Salix alba
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Salix alba

Salix alba
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Salix alba
Salix alba
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Salix alba

Salix alba
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Salix alba
Salix alba
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Salix alba

Salix alba
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Salix alba
Salix alba
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Salix alba

Salix alba
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Salix alba
Salix alba
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Salix alba

Salix alba
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Salix alba
Salix alba
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Salix alba

Salix alba
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Salix alba
Salix alba
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Salix alba
Names
Scientific source:

Supported by

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Agaricaceae  Phoma acervalis @ BPI (2)
Aphelinidae  Aphytis @ UCRC_ENT (9)
Aphididae  Chaitophorus viminalis @ CSUC_TCN (6)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Botryosphaeria delilei @ BPI (6)

Diplodia salicina @ BPI (2)

Phyllosticta salicina @ BPI (2)

Sphaeropsis malorum @ BPI (1)
Corticiaceae  Corticium bombycinum @ BPI (1)

Corticium calceum @ BPI (1)

Corticium confluens @ BPI (1)

Corticium laeve @ BPI (1)
Cryptomycetaceae  Cryptomyces maximus @ BPI (1)
Dermateaceae  Drepanopeziza fuckelii @ BPI (1)

Gloeosporium aterrimum @ BPI (1)

Gloeosporium salicis @ BPI (20)

Marssonina kriegeriana @ BPI (1)

Marssonina santonensis @ BPI (4)

Monostichella salicis @ BPI (4)
Diaporthaceae  Diaporthe salicella @ BPI (8)

Diaporthe verecunda @ BPI (1)
Diatrypaceae  Diatrype bullata @ BPI (5)

Eutypa laevata @ BPI (1)
Erysiphaceae  Phyllactinia corylea @ BPI (1)

Uncinula salicis @ BPI (2)
Fomitopsidaceae  Daedalea confragosa @ BPI (7)

Daedalea gibbosa @ BPI (1)

Daedalea unicolor @ BPI (2)
Gnomoniaceae  Cryptodiaporthe apiculata @ BPI (1)

Cryptodiaporthe salicella @ BPI (2)

Gnomonia salicina @ BPI (1)
Halictidae  Lasioglossum zephyrum @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Hericiaceae  Mucronella fascicularis @ BPI (1)
Hymenochaetaceae  Hymenochaete tabacina @ BPI (1)
Hyponectriaceae  Physalospora gregaria @ BPI (1)

Physalospora miyabeana @ BPI (6)
Melampsoraceae  Melampsora abieti-capraearum @ BPI (4)

Melampsora allii-fragilis @ BPI (3)

Melampsora allii-salicis-albae @ BPI (3)

Melampsora bigelowii @ BPI (1)

Melampsora capraearum @ BPI (1)

Melampsora epitea @ BPI (6)

Melampsora humboldtiana @ BPI (1)

Melampsora salicina @ BPI (1)

Melampsora salicis-albae @ BPI (12)

Melampsora salicis-capreae @ BPI (2)
Miridae  Pilophorus neoclavatus @ AMNH_PBI (4)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Cercospora salicina @ BPI (1)

Cercospora salicis @ BPI (1)

Mycosphaerella genuflexa @ BPI (1)

Ramularia uredinis @ BPI (1)

Septoria didyma @ BPI (3)
Polyporaceae  Fomes applanatus @ BPI (2)

Fomes conchatus @ BPI (1)

Fomes igniarius @ BPI (6)

Polyporus adustus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus caudicinus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus fumosus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus lacteus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus sulphureus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (2)

Poria racodioides @ BPI (1)

Trametes gibbosa @ BPI (1)

Trametes hispida @ BPI (1)

Trametes malicola @ BPI (1)

Trametes suaveolens @ BPI (14)
Reticulariaceae  Lycogala epidendrum @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Stereum purpureum @ BPI (1)
Strophariaceae  Kuehneromyces mutabilis @ BPI (1)

Pholiota squarrosa @ BPI (1)
Tricholomataceae  Helotium salicellum @ BPI (2)
Tubeufiaceae  Helicomyces triglitziensis @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora aurora @ BPI (2)

Cytospora chrysosperma @ BPI (1)

Cytospora salicella @ BPI (1)

Cytospora salicis @ BPI (1)

Valsa germanica @ BPI (1)

Valsa salicina @ BPI (1)

Valsa schweinitzii @ BPI (1)
Venturiaceae  Fusicladium saliciperdum @ BPI (17)

Venturia chlorospora @ BPI (1)
Xylariaceae  Anthostomella @ BPI (1)
_  Depazea salicina @ BPI (1)

Phialea subgalbula @ BPI (2)

Sirothecium lichenicola @ BPI (1)

Sphaeronaema spinella @ BPI (2)

Trimmatostroma salicis @ BPI (1)

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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Salix alba L.
white willow

Image of Salix alba

General Information
Symbol: SAAL2
Group: Dicot
Family: Salicaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Tree
Native Status : CAN   I
L48   I
Characteristics
Data Source and Documentation
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Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Salix thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . Chermesina. United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . Chermesina. United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . Chermesina. United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . Chermesina. United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . Vitellina. United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . Vitellina. United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . Vitellina. United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook . USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee; NDSU Extension and Western Area Power Administration, Bismarck. Provided by ND State Soil Conservation Committee . Provided by USDA NRCS Bismarck PMC (NDPMC) . Vitellina. United States, ND. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 595. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Symbol Scientific Name
SAALC2 Salix alba L. ssp. caerulea (Sm.) Rech. f.
SAALV2 Salix alba L. ssp. vitellina (L.) Arcang.
SAALC Salix alba L. var. caerulea (Sm.) Sm.
SAALC3 Salix alba L. var. calva G. Mey.
SAALV Salix alba L. var. vitellina (L.) Stokes
SAVI80 Salix vitellina L.

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Dilleniidae
Order Salicales
Family Salicaceae – Willow family
Genus Salix L. – willow
Species Salix alba L. – white willow

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Arid West FACW
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain FACW
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont FACW
Great Plains FACW
Midwest FACW
Northcentral & Northeast FACW
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast FACW

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (SAAL2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (SAAL2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (SAALC)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (SAALC2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (SAALC3)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (SAALV)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (SAALV2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (SAVI80)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (SAAL2)
Kemper Center for Home Gardening (SAAL2)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (SAAL2)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (SAAL2)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (SAAL2)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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FNA Vol. 7 Page 23, 29, 30, 36, 39, 40, 42 , 43, 47, 153 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 7 | Salicaceae | Salix

9. Salix alba Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1021. 1753.

White willow

Trees, 10-25 m. Stems: branches flexible or ± brittle at base, yellow, gray-brown, or red-brown, glabrous or hairy; branchlets yellowish or gray to red-brown, pilose, densely villous, or long-silky. Leaves: stipules rudimentary or absent on early ones, rudimentary or foliaceous on late ones, apex acute; petiole shallowly grooved adaxially, 3-13 mm, with pairs or clusters of spherical glands or lobes distally, long-silky abaxially; largest medial blade amphistomatous, narrowly oblong, very narrowly elliptic, narrowly elliptic, or lanceolate, 63-115 × 10-20 mm, 4.2-7.3 times as long as wide, base cuneate or convex, margins flat, serrate or serrulate, apex acuminate, caudate, or acute, abaxial surface very densely long-silky to glabrescent, hairs straight, (glaucous or obscured by hairs), adaxial dull, sparsely long-silky; proximal blade margins entire; juvenile blade yellowish green or reddish, very densely long-silky abaxially. Catkins: staminate 27-60 × 6-10 mm, flowering branchlet 2-8 mm; pistillate loosely flowered, slender, 31-51 × 4-8 mm, flowering branchlet 3-14 mm; floral bract 1.6-2.8 mm, apex rounded, entire, abaxially sparsely hairy, hairs straight. Staminate flowers: adaxial nectary oblong to square, 0.3-0.7 mm, nectaries usually distinct (rarely connate); filaments distinct, hairy on proximal 1/2 or basally; anthers (purple, turning yellow), shortly cylindrical to globose, 0.5-0.7 mm. Pistillate flowers: adaxial nectary square, 0.3-0.7 mm, equal to or shorter than stipe; stipe 0.2-0.8 mm; ovary obclavate to pyriform, beak slightly bulged below styles; ovules 8 or 9 per ovary; styles connate, 0.2-0.4 mm; stigmas flat, abaxially non-papillate with rounded tip, or broadly cylindrical, 0.3-0.6 mm. Capsules 3.5-5 mm. 2 n = 76.

Flowering early May-late Jun. Riverbanks, sandy beaches, fens, old fields, roadsides, gravel pits; 70-2000 m; introduced; N.B., Ont., Que., Sask.; Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.; Eurasia.

Reports that Salix alba is naturalized in Alberta, British Columbia, California, and Washington are undocumented.

The variants of Salix alba , commonly cultivated in the flora area, are often treated as subspecies (K. H. Rechinger 1993) or varieties (R. D. Meikle 1984) but they are all cultivars. The most common ones are: S. alba cv. Sericea ( S. alba var. sericea Gaudin) with densely and persistently long-silky leaves and branchlets; S. alba cv. Vitellina ( S. alba var. vitellina (Linnaeus) Stokes) with yellow to yellow-brown branchlets and branches; S. alba cv. Caerulea ( S. alba var. caerulea (Smith) Smith) with dark brown branchlets and leaves coarsely toothed and sparsely silky abaxially; and S. alba cv. Chermesina ( S. alba var. chermesina Hartig) with reddish twigs. Plants referred to in the literature as S. alba var. vitellina cv. Pendula are treated here as S . × sepulcralis .

Hybrids:

Salix alba forms natural hybrids with S. lucida and S. nigra . Hybrids with S. petiolaris have been reported (M. L. Fernald 1950) but no convincing specimens have been seen.

Salix alba × S. nigra is an infrequent hybrid that is reported to have the catkins of S. alba and the foliage of S. nigra (M. S. Bebb 1895). Buds of this hybrid should be examined to see if they have the partially connate bud-scales characteristic of crosses between species with connate and distinct margins (J. Chmela 1978).

Salix alba × S. euxina . See S. ×fragilis below.

Salix alba × S. lucida . See S. ×jesupii [p. 43].

Salix alba var. vitellina × S. babylonica. See S. × sepulcralis Simonkai [p. 40].

Salix × fragilis Linnaeus: The hybrid white willow, S. alba Linnaeus × S. euxina I. Belyaeva, a European introduction, is the most commonly cultivated and naturalized tree-willow in the flora area. It is characterized by: trees, 3-20 m, stems erect or drooping; branches highly brittle at base; petioles with spherical or foliaceous glands distally, pilose or villous adaxially; largest medial leaf blade amphistomatous, very narrowly elliptic or narrowly elliptic, margins uniformly serrate or serrulate, abaxial surface glaucous, both surfaces sparsely long-silky to glabrescent, adaxial surface slightly glossy or dull; juvenile leaves at first densely long-silky soon glabrous; pistillate bract deciduous after flowering; stamens 2; anthers yellow; pistillate adaxial nectary shorter than or equal to stipe; stipe 0.3-0.5 mm; ovary pyriform, glabrous; ovules 6-12 per ovary; styles 0.4-1 mm; capsules 4.5-6 mm; 2 n = 57, 76. Flowering is in late May-early June. Individual trees can persist for years by trunk suckering and spread vegetatively by shoot fragmentation along stream margins, shingle and sand beaches, sedge meadows, hardwood forests, and sand pits. It occurs from 0 to 2500 m in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan; Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

A study of Salix × fragilis in Colorado (as S. × rubens ) showed that 2172 of 2175 trees were pistillate. Occasionally seed was set, possibly fertilized by S. alba (P. B. Shafroth et al. 1994). There are at least five clones of S. × fragilis (as S . × rubens ) in cultivation (T. Berg in B. Jonsell and T. Karlsson 2000+, vol. 1); the pistillate are sterile but the staminate produce viable pollen. The hybrid plants are often misidentified as S. " fragilis " or as S. nigra . In the flora area, reproduction of the hybrid seems to be mainly by stem fragmentation.

Prior to the lectotypification of Salix fragilis Linnaeus and the description of S. euxina (I. V. Belyaeva 2009), the name S. " fragilis " was often inadvertently used for both the pure species and for its hybrids with S. alba . Thus all herbarium specimens under the names " fragilis " and "× rubens " need to be revised.

Salix ×fragilis can be separated from S. euxina by having branches and branchlets hairy or glabrescent in age versus glabrous; leaf blades not glaucous abaxially versus glaucous; leaves amphistomatous versus hypostomatous or with stomata only along veins and at apex; and pistillate catkins slender and loosely flowered versus stout and moderately densely flowered.

Several molecular studies have been designed to understand the nature of this hybrid. H. Beissmann et al. (1997), using AFLP markers, were able to recognize three clusters: Salix alba, S. euxina (as S. fragilis ), and S . × fragilis (as S. × rubens ); but a study by K. De Cock et al. (2003), also using AFLP markers, was unable to resolve S. alba and S . × fragilis (as S. × rubens ). They recommended the use of experimental hybridization to study the genesis of this hybrid. Molecular and genetic studies by L. L. Triest (2001) and coworkers concluded that in modern open agricultural situations in Belgium, hybridization was of low occurrence, and that morphologically intermediate plants were not necessarily genetically intermediate. These studies saw different facets of the question. Clearly there are three entities, S. alba, S. euxina , and their hybrid but, because S. euxina may be rare outside of cultivation, natural hybridization may not occur and the question of whether S. × fragilis can be backcrossed with S. alba remains to be studied. The specimens used in these molecular studies require reidentification.

Salix × jesupii Fernald: S. alba × S. lucida ; S. × ehrhartiana of authors, not G. Meyer. The origin of this hybrid, between a European and a native species, is unknown. It is characterized by: shrubs or trees, 7-10 m; branchlets red-brown; petioles convex to shallowly grooved adaxially, 3-11 mm, with pairs or clusters of spherical or stalked glands distally; largest medial leaf blade amphistomatous or hemiamphistomatous, abaxial surface glaucous, sparsely long-silky to glabrescent, hairs white and ferruginous; floral bract apex acute to rounded, toothed or entire; pistillate flowering branchlet 8-16 mm, bract deciduous after flowering; stamens 3-5; stipes 0.3-0.6 mm; ovary pyriform, glabrous; ovules 12-14 per ovary; styles 0.3-0.8 mm; capsules 4-5 mm. Flowering is late April-mid May. It occurs in the flora area on the edges of streams and lakes, in wet deciduous woods, sand dunes, and wet railroad rights-of-way, at 10-300 m, in Ontario, Quebec, Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan; Illinois, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. It is possibly introduced in Washington.

Salix × jesupii was named by M. S. Bebb (1895) as a formula hybrid, S. alba × S. lucida , and Fernald based his binomial on Bebb's exsiccatae. In North America, it was mistaken for the European S. × ehrhartiana G. Meyer ( S. alba Linnaeus × S. pentandra Linnaeus) (G. W. Argus 1986). Study of nectary morphology confirmed that the North American plants were not the same as the European hybrid. In herbaria, plants of S . × jesupii often are misidentified as S. alba, S. euxina , S. × fragilis , or S. lucida .

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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Salix+alba&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Salix+alba&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 2
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Salix alba%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

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Salix alba
Salix alba
ID: 0000 0000 0508 0279 [detail]
© 2008 Louis-M. Landry

Salix alba
Salix alba
ID: 0000 0000 0508 0280 [detail]
© 2008 Louis-M. Landry

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