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Salix planifolia Pursh
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Salix planifolia
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Salix planifolia

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Salix planifolia
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Salix planifolia

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Erysiphaceae  Uncinula salicis @ BPI (1)
Massarinaceae  Massarina salicincola @ BPI (1)
Melampsoraceae  Melampsora abieti-capraearum @ BPI (2)

Melampsora bigelowii @ BPI (1)

Melampsora epitea @ BPI (5)

Melampsora paradoxa @ BPI (9)

Melampsora ribesii-purpureae @ BPI (1)
Miridae  Lygidea annexa @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Psallus aethiops @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Salignus tahoensis @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Rhytismataceae  Rhytisma salicinum @ BPI (7)
_  Sclerophoma salicis @ BPI (1)

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Salix planifolia Pursh
diamondleaf willow

Image of Salix planifolia

General Information
Symbol: SAPL2
Group: Dicot
Family: Salicaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Shrub
Native Status : AK   N
L48   N
Data Source and Documentation
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Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   


click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Salix thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA NRCS. 1992. Western wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species . West Region, Sacramento. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA NRCS. 1992. Western wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species . West Region, Sacramento. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

©Al Schneider. Southwest Colorado Wildflowers . United States, CO, NM, AZ, UT, Four Corners vicinity, within 150 miles of the corners. Usage Requirements .

©Al Schneider. Southwest Colorado Wildflowers . United States, CO, NM, AZ, UT, Four Corners vicinity, within 150 miles of the corners. Usage Requirements .

©Al Schneider. Southwest Colorado Wildflowers . United States, CO, NM, AZ, UT, Four Corners vicinity, within 150 miles of the corners. Usage Requirements .

©Al Schneider. Southwest Colorado Wildflowers . United States, CO, NM, AZ, UT, Four Corners vicinity, within 150 miles of the corners. Usage Requirements .

©Al Schneider. Southwest Colorado Wildflowers . United States, CO, NM, AZ, UT, Four Corners vicinity, within 150 miles of the corners. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 600. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Provided by NRCS National Wetland Team . Usage Requirements .




Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Dilleniidae
Order Salicales
Family Salicaceae – Willow family
Genus Salix L. – willow
Species Salix planifolia Pursh – diamondleaf willow

Subordinate Taxa

The Plants Database includes the following 1 subspecies of Salix planifolia . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Plant is native (blue) Native Plant is introduced Introduced Plant is introduced Native and Introduced Related taxa legend Distribution of <i>
Salix planifolia</i>
Pursh ssp. <i>
planifolia </i>
Salix planifolia ssp. planifolia
diamondleaf willow

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
Maine tea-leaved willow Threatened
Michigan tea-leaved willow Threatened
New Hampshire tea-leaved willow Threatened
Vermont tea-leaved willow Threatened
Wisconsin tea-leaved willow Threatened

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Alaska FACW
Arid West OBL
Great Plains OBL
Midwest OBL
Northcentral & Northeast OBL
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast OBL

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ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (SAPL2)
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Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (SAPL2)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (SAPL2)
Native Plants Network (SAPL2)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (SAPL2)



Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds


Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover

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FNA Vol. 7 Page 27, 80, 87, 90, 92, 93, 97, 98, 119, 126, 127, 130, 131, 136, 137, 138 , 1 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 7 | Salicaceae | Salix

88. Salix planifolia Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 611. 1813.

Tea-leaf willow

Salix monica Bebb; S. phylicifolia Linnaeus var. monica (Bebb) Jepson; S. phylicifolia subsp. planifolia (Pursh) Hiitonen; S. planifolia var. monica (Bebb) C. K. Schneider

Shrubs or trees, 0.1-9 m, (sometimes forming clones by layering). Stems (sometimes decumbent); branches yellow-brown, red-brown, or violet, not to strongly glaucous, glabrous or pubescent; branchlets yellow-brown, red-brown, or violet, glabrous, pilose, pubescent, moderately densely villous, or short-silky, (buds caprea -type). Leaves: stipules (sometimes marcescent), rudimentary or foliaceous (small and usually brownish) on early ones, rudimentary or foliaceous on late ones, (narrowly ovate to oblong, 1-2.5(-4.5) mm), apex acute; petiole shallowly grooved adaxially, 2-9(-13) mm, glabrous, pilose, or short-silky adaxially; largest medial blade (sometimes hemiamphistomatous), narrowly oblong, narrowly elliptic, elliptic, or oblanceolate, 20-36-65 × 5-13-23 mm, 1.7-2.8-4.7 times as long as wide, base cuneate or convex, margins sometimes slightly revolute basally, entire, or, sometimes, crenulate or serrulate, apex acute, acuminate, or convex, abaxial surface glaucous, glabrous or sparsely silky, hairs (white, sometimes also ferruginous) straight or wavy, adaxial highly glossy, glabrous or sparsely short-silky; proximal blade margins entire; juvenile blade reddish or yellowish green, glabrous, puberulent, pubescent, or densely long-silky abaxially, hairs white, sometimes also ferruginous. Catkins flowering before leaves emerge; staminate stout, subglobose, or globose, 12-41 × 10-20 mm, flowering branchlet 0-4 mm; pistillate densely flowered, slender, or stout to globose, 15-67 (-70 in fruit) × 8-18 mm, flowering branchlet 0-6 mm; floral bract dark brown or black, 1-3.2 mm, apex acute, convex, or rounded, sometimes 2-fid, abaxially hairy, hairs straight. Staminate flowers: adaxial nectary narrowly oblong or oblong, 0.4-1.1 mm; filaments distinct, glabrous or sparsely hairy basally; anthers purple turning yellow, shortly cylindrical, 0.5-0.7 mm. Pistillate flowers: adaxial nectary oblong, square, or ovate, 0.4-1.3 mm, shorter to longer than stipe; stipe 0.3-0.8 mm; ovary pyriform, short- to long-silky, sometimes slightly bulged below styles; ovules 11-16 per ovary; styles 0.5-2 mm; stigmas slenderly to broadly cylindrical, 0.36-0.52-1.1 mm. Capsules (2.5-)5.5-6 mm. 2 n = 76, 57.

Flowering early May-late Jun. Arctic, alpine, subalpine, and boreal meadows and riverbanks, streams, seeps, snowflush areas, treed bogs, fens, sandy-loam, rocky igneous and limestone substrates; 100-4000 m; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., Nunavut, Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Maine, Mich., Minn., Mont., Nev., N.H., N.Mex., Oreg., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Wash., Wis., Wyo.

Variety monica applies to the diminutive alpine form that sometimes is recognized in the southern Rocky Mountains (S. J. Brunsfeld and F. D. Johnson 1985); it occurs at higher elevations (2200-4000 m) and is characterized by low growth form (0.14-1 m) and smaller, slightly broader leaves. Although it can be distinctive, it is morphologically confluent with the typical species. B. G. O. Floderus (1939) may be correct in characterizing it as an alpine ecotype.

Salix planifolia and S. pulchra are closely related. Their ranges overlap in northwestern Canada, from northern British Columbia across the southern quarter of the Yukon and northeastward into the Great Bear Lake area. Specimens identified as S. pulchra occur as far northeastward as Coppermine and northeast of Bathurst Inlet; S. planifolia has been recognized in the Mackenzie Delta and Eskimo Lake regions, Northwest Territories. Outlying records should be treated with caution because identification of individual specimens out of context may not be definitive. G. W. Argus (1969, 1973) treated these taxa as subspecies based on their intergradation in northwestern British Columbia, their tetraploid chromosome number, and their similar leaf flavonoid chromatographic patterns, but this taxonomy needs reconsideration.

The primary differences between the two species are stipule size, shape, and persistence and the pubescence on juvenile leaves. Stipules of Salix planifolia are oblong to narrowly elliptic or obovate, 0.8-3 mm (or -4.5 mm at Back River, Northwest Territories), distinctly shorter than petioles, and rarely marcescent for more than one year; stipules of S. pulchra are linear to narrowly oblong, 3-32 mm, usually longer than petioles, and usually marcescent for two or more years. Juvenile leaves of S. planifolia are usually more densely hairy, but vary from glabrescent to sparsely or very densely pubescent or long-silky, whereas juvenile leaves of S. pulchra are usually glabrous or, sometimes, sparsely hairy. The occurrence of rhombic mature leaf blades in S. pulchra sometimes is distinctive, but overlap in leaf shape between the two taxa is very great.

The area of geographic overlap in Yukon and western Northwest Territories is large, but evidence suggests that there the two species may be separated by elevation. In the vicinity of Whitehorse, Yukon, Salix pulchra occurs at higher elevations (1400-1900 m) than S. planifolia (ca. 1000 m); no mixed populations were seen. In Nahanni National Park, Northwest Territories, where S. planifolia is more common than S. pulchra , the latter occurs only in alpine and subalpine habitats (1200-1400 m). Evidence from both localities indicates an elevational separation of the two taxa. Within the area of overlap there is little evidence of intergradation except that S. planifolia has stipules that tend to be more marcescent (40% are marcescent) and sometimes longer (2-3.5 mm) than is usual outside the area of overlap. Nevertheless, specimens from the area of overlap can be easily assigned to one taxon or the other with only a few apparent intermediates. The problem in recognizing intermediacy is that there are only a few, variable characters that separate the two. In contrast, in 1973, G. W. Argus described evidence of hybridization and introgression along the Haines Road in northwestern British Columbia. This was based on variation in stipule size, presence, and persistence in what appeared to be a hybrid swarm. Further data are needed to answer questions about actual hybridization. Are the species separated by habitat or elevation, and are there reproductive barriers? Answers could be gained by population studies and controlled hybridization. Until that is done it is best to treat these taxa as species.

See 76. Salix discolor and 95a. S. alaxensis var. alaxensis for comparative descriptions.


Salix planifolia forms natural hybrids with S. alaxensis var. alaxensis, S. argyrocarpa, S. brachycarpa var. brachycarpa, S. candida, S. drummondiana , S. humilis, S. pellita, S. pulchra , and S. scouleriana . Hybrids with S. glauca var. cordifolia have been reported (C. K. Schneider 1921) but no convincing specimens have been seen.

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Salix+planifolia&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Salix+planifolia&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 9
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Salix planifolia%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Salix planifolia
Salix planifolia
Tea Leaved Willow
ID: 1335 3153 0671 0102 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2002 California Academy of Sciences

Salix planifolia
Salix planifolia
ID: 0000 0000 0806 0691 [detail]
© 2006 Steve Tyron

Salix planifolia
Salix planifolia
ID: 0000 0000 1008 1175 [detail]
© 2008 Steve Matson

Salix planifolia
Salix planifolia
ID: 0000 0000 1008 1176 [detail]
© 2008 Steve Matson

Salix planifolia
Salix planifolia
ID: 0000 0000 1008 1177 [detail]
© 2008 Steve Matson

Salix planifolia
Salix planifolia
ID: 0000 0000 1009 0299 [detail]
© 2009 Steve Matson

Salix planifolia
Salix planifolia
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0047 [detail]
© 2010 Barry Breckling

Salix planifolia
Salix planifolia
Tea-leaf Willow
ID: 6666 6666 0514 0163 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2014 California Academy of Sciences

Salix planifolia
Salix planifolia
Diamond-leaf Willow
ID: 0000 0000 0815 2599 [detail]
© 2015 Barry Breckling

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