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Salix serissima (L.H. Bailey) Fernald
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Salicaceae   Salix

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FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Melampsoraceae  Melampsora bigelowii @ BPI (1)

Melampsora paradoxa @ BPI (4)

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Salix serissima (L.H. Bailey) Fernald
autumn willow

Image of Salix serissima

General Information
Symbol: SASE2
Group: Dicot
Family: Salicaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Shrub
Native Status : CAN   N
L48   N
Data Source and Documentation
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Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   


click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Salix thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

©Al Schneider. Southwest Colorado Wildflowers . United States, CO, NM, AZ, UT, Four Corners vicinity, within 150 miles of the corners. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 594. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .



Symbol Scientific Name
SAARA3 Salix arguta Andersson var. alpigena
SAARP2 Salix arguta Andersson var. pallescens
SALUS Salix lucida Muhl. var. serissima L.H. Bailey


Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Dilleniidae
Order Salicales
Family Salicaceae – Willow family
Genus Salix L. – willow
Species Salix serissima (L.H. Bailey) Fernald – autumn willow

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
Connecticut autumn willow Special Concern
Illinois autumn willow Endangered
Indiana autumn willow Threatened
Pennsylvania autumn willow Threatened

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Arid West OBL
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont OBL
Great Plains OBL
Midwest OBL
Northcentral & Northeast OBL
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast OBL

Related Links

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Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (SASE2)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (SASE2)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (SASE2)



Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds


Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover

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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 7 | Salicaceae | Salix

12. Salix serissima (L. H. Bailey) Fernald, Rhodora. 6: 6. 1903.

Autumn willow

Salix lucida Muhlenberg var. serissima L. H. Bailey, Bull. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Minnesota 3: 19. 1887

Shrubs, 1-5 m. Stems: branches usually flexible at base, some-times brittle, yellow-brown, red-brown, or gray-brown, glabrous, slightly glossy or dull; branchlets yellow-brown or red-brown, glabrous, slightly or highly glossy. Leaves: stipules absent or rudimentary; petiole shallowly to deeply grooved adaxially, 3-13 mm, with pairs of spherical glands distally or throughout, glabrous adaxially; largest medial blade hypostomatous or hemiamphistomatous, narrowly oblong, very narrowly elliptic, elliptic, lanceolate, or narrowly ovate, 43-110 × 9-33 mm, 2.4-6 times as long as wide, base convex or cuneate, margins flat, serrulate, apex acuminate, caudate, or acute, abaxial surface usually not glaucous, sometimes thinly so (appearing pale green), slightly glossy, glabrous, adaxial highly glossy, glabrous; proximal blade margins serrulate or entire; juvenile blade reddish or yellowish green, glabrous abaxially. Catkins: staminate (stout), 25-53 × 12-16 mm, flowering branchlet 5-14 mm; pistillate (fruiting in autumn, often persistent) moderately densely to loosely flowered, stout to globose, 17-42(-65 in fruit) × 11-22 mm, flowering branchlet 5-32(-65 in fruit) mm; floral bract (sometimes greenish tawny), 1.2-4 mm, apex acute, rounded, or truncate, glandular-toothed, abaxially moderately densely hairy, hairs straight or wavy. Staminate flowers: abaxial nectary 0.5-1.1 mm, adaxial nectary oblong or ovate, 0.4-1.1 mm, nectaries distinct or connate and cup-shaped; stamens 3-9; filaments distinct or basally connate, hairy on proximal 1/2 or basally; anthers ellipsoid or shortly cylindrical, 0.5-0.7 mm. Pistillate flowers: adaxial nectary ovate, oblong, or flask-shaped, 0.3-1.1 mm, shorter than stipe; stipe 1.2-2.4 mm; ovary pyriform to obclavate, beak slightly bulged below or abruptly tapering to styles; ovules 12-16 per ovary; styles connate, 0.3-1 mm; stigmas flat, abaxially non-papillate with rounded tip, or slenderly cylindrical, 0.4-0.7 mm. Capsules 7-12 mm. 2 n = 76.

Flowering early Jun-early Jul. Wet thickets, fens, brackish marshy strands, marly lakeshores, treed bogs, gravelly stream banks, lakeshores; 10-3000 m; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., Nunavut, Que., Sask.; Colo., Conn., Ill., Ind., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., N.J., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Pa., S.Dak., Vt., Wis., Wyo.

Flowering of Salix serissima is often described as serotinous (i.e., long after leaves emerge), but actually, they flower just as leaves emerge. Although they flower only a little later in spring than related species, they set fruit in late summer, and fruiting catkins often persist throughout winter. Their seeds remain dormant throughout the winter and germinate in the spring, thus enabling them to invade fens by completing their first annual growth before the sedges and grasses are tall enough to shade them out. This strategy has been reported to occur also in the related S. pentandra (A. K. Skvortsov 1999).

Salix serissima is found in Nunavut only on Akimiski Island in James Bay.

North American Salix serissima is closely related to Eurasian S. pseudopentandra (Floderus) Floderus (A. K. Skvortsov 1999), which is known in China as S. pentandra var. intermedia Nakai and possibly also S. humaensis Y. L. Chou & R. C. Chou (Fang Z. F. et al. 1999). The relationship of S. serissima and S. pseudopentandra is similar to that of S. arbusculoides and S. boganidensis (G. W. Argus 1997). These two species, along with the amphiberingian S. vestita , are relictual members of former panboreal distributions.


Hybrids between Salix lucida and S. serissima have been reported (M. L. Fernald 1950); no convincing specimens have been seen.

Updated: 2019-10-21 01:08:36 gmt
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