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Trifolium reflexum L.
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Fabaceae   Trifolium

Trifolium reflexum
© Copyright Stenka Vulova 2011 · -9
Trifolium reflexum

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Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Erysiphaceae  Erysiphe polygoni @ BPI (1)
Megachilidae  Osmia pumila @ AMNH_BEE (1)
_  Cicinobolus polygoni @ BPI (1)

Polythrincium trifolii @ BPI (3)

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Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
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Trifolium reflexum  L.

Buffalo Clover

Family - Fabaceae

Stems - Multiple from a taproot, ascending, herbaceous, purple in strong sun, terete and sometimes carinate, pilose or glabrous, to +/-30cm tall, branching.

Leaves - Alternate, trifoliolate, stipulate, petiolate. Stipules to +2cm long, 1cm broad, ovate to lanceolate, acuminate, entire or with crenulate margins, pilose. Petioles pilose, to +10cm long. Leaflets sessile, pilose, equal, emarginate to rounded at the apex, with or without a minute mucro, obovate to rhombic or spatulate, with serrulate margins, to 4cm long. Upper leaves reduced.


Inflorescence - Terminal pedunculate globose umbel +/-50 flowers. Peduncle pilose or glabrous and carinate, to 10cm long. Pedicels 3-4mm long, pilose. Flowers erect to spreading at first but quickly reflexed.

Flowers - Corolla papilionaceous, white to greenish-white. Standard whitish-green, 8-10mm long, 4-5mm broad, glabrous. Wings and keels to 7-8mm long. Wings connate to the keels at about the middle. Stamens diadelphous. Stamen tube white, to 3mm long, glabrous. Free portion of the filaments to 3mm long and deflexed. Anthers yellow, to 1mm long. Ovary superior, green, 3mm long, mostly glabrous but with white floccose hairs at the apex, slightly compressed. Style 3mm long, greenish-white, glabrous, deflexed at the apex. Stigma small, capitate, yellowish. Corolla drying brown and persistent around the developing fruit. Calyx 5-lobed. Calyx tube to -2mm long, pilose or glabrous externally, glabrous internally. Lobes linear, subequal (4 equal and the lowest slightly smaller), acute, ciliate or glabrous, 4-5mm long. Fruit inflated, to 5mm long, on a stipe to 1.5mm long.



Flowering - May - August.

Habitat - Rocky open woods, glades, old fields, prairies. Typically on acid soils.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Other info. - This species can be found throughout much of Missouri. The plant is fairly easy to identify in the field because of its big flower heads and reflexed fruits. There are two varieties of the species in Missouri. Variety reflexum (pictured above) has hairy stems and calices. Variety glabrum Lojacono has stems and calices which are glabrous. The two varieties may not be valid.

Photographs taken near Stegal Mountain, Shannon County, MO., 6-4-04.

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Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRRE2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRRE2
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRRE2 ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=TRRE2
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=TRRE2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=TRRE2
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Trifolium reflexum L.
buffalo clover

Image of Trifolium reflexum

General Information
Symbol: TRRE2
Group: Dicot
Family: Fabaceae
Duration: Annual
Growth Habit : Forb/herb
Native Status : CAN   W
L48   N
Data Source and Documentation
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Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   


click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Trifolium thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Steve Hurst. Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory . United States, TX, Corrigan. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 357. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .



Symbol Scientific Name
TRREG Trifolium reflexum L. var. glabrum Loja.


Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Rosidae
Order Fabales
Family Fabaceae ⁄ Leguminosae – Pea family
Genus Trifolium L. – clover
Species Trifolium reflexum L. – buffalo clover

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
Illinois buffalo clover Endangered
Indiana Trifolium reflexum var. glabrum
buffalo clover Endangered
Kentucky buffalo clover Endangered
Maryland buffalo clover Endangered, Extirpated
Ohio buffalo clover Endangered
Pennsylvania buffalo clover Extirpated
Tennessee buffalo clover Endangered

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (TRRE2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (TRRE2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (TRREG)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (TRRE2)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (TRRE2)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (TRRE2)



Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds


Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover

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