Acyrthosiphon kondoi

BY ZACK THOMAS

Common Names : 'Blue-green Aphid', Blue Alfalfa Aphid', 'Blue Lucerne Aphid'
Family: Aphididae
Superfamily: Aphidoidea
Order: Homoptera

Class: Insecta



BLUGREEN APHID

[Photo courtesy of UC statewide IPM project]



Page Contents

Identification
Geography
Natural History
How to Encounter
References



Identification

Acyrthosiphon kondoi resembles closely Acyrthosiphon pisum, the green pea aphid, in shape but is slightly smaller in size (A. kondoi is 3 mm to 4mm of A. pisum). Juvenile forms of the two species are so similar as to be indistinguishable. As an adult, however,A. kondoi has the following characteristics:
Wingless adults are usually 2-4 mm long, dark green, and have a waxy appearance. The antennae, legs, and siphunculi (posterior projections) are uniformly brown or pale green. Winged adults are very similar to the wingless form, but have two pairs fo wings that rest extended beyond the hind end of the body. The area surrounding the base of the wings is normally pale brown (Hill, 1979).

Geography


Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji



AREA STATUS REFERENCES
North America:
Continental United States; Canada
YesBlackman &;Eastop,
1984
Eastern North America:
United States east of Mississippi;
Ontario and eastern Canada
YesFuentes, et al., 1994
Southeastern United States:
AL AR DE DC FL GA KY MD NC SC TN VA WV
YesFuentes, et al., 1994
Southern Appalachian States:
AL GA KY MD NC SC TN VA WV
YesFuentes, et al., 1994
Georgia?No Information Avaiable
Clarke County, Georgia?-
Sams FarmNone ObservedZack Thomas, Pers. Ob.
Old Field

None ObservedZack Thomas, Pers. Ob.
Wetland

?-
Woods

None ObservedZack Thomas, Pers. Ob.
1-Hectare Plot

None ObservedZack Thomas, Pers. Ob.





Natural History

As with all aphids, bluegreen aphids consume the nutritive fluid transported in the phloem of their host plant. This is done directly by inserting a proboscis into the phloem tissue. The internal pressure within the phloem is generally enough to pump the 'food' into the pea aphid's gut (Dixon, 1973). Bluegreen aphids are primarily found on clovers, lentils and trefoils. In drier areas of the west, the bluegreen aphid is a significant econcomic threat to infested alfalfa crops (Manglitz &;Rethwisch, 1987).
The life cycle of the bluegreen aphid begins in February/March, depending on the local clinmate, when overwintering eggs hatch on a host plant. All hatching eggs are female which then reproduce parethenogenetically, with each individual producing 4-12 females per day. All young are born live. Populations increase and in mid-May winged females (with a minor contingent of winged males) are produced which then emigrate in search of new host plants. The population continues to expand from June through September, or as long as the host plant continues to produce adequate quantities of sap and there are no hard freezes. By October, oviparous females are produced along with a few males (although males are rarely recorded) which then breed and lay eggs for overwintering (Hill, 1987).



How to Encounter

The author was not able to determine a location in Clarke county, Georgia wherein bluegreen aphids were present. Additionally, although it is quite possible that this aphid species is present in the state, current information confirming aphid's prescence was not available.



References

Blackman, R.L. And V.F. Eastop. 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops: An Identification Guide. John Wiley &;Sons, New York, NY. 210-214.

Dixon, A.F.G. 1973. Biology of Aphids. Edward Arnold (Publishers), Ltd. London. 55 pages. (ISBN: 0-7131-2421-0)

Fuentes, C., W.O. Lamp, and D Lieweher. 1994. First Report of the Blue Alfalfa Aphid in Maryland: Natural Enemies and Biotype. Journal of the Kansas Entomological society 67: 129-132.

Hill, Dennis S. 1987. Agricultural Insect Pests of Temperate Regions and Their Control. Cambridge University Press, England. 624 pages. (ISBN: 0-521-24013-1)

Hill, R.L. 1979. Blugreen Lucerne Aphid, Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji, and Pea Aphid, A. pisum, life cycles.

Manglitz, G.R. And M.D. Rethwisch. 1987. Distribution and Parasitoids of the Blue Alfalfa Aphid, Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji, in Nebraska. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 60: 537-561.



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